TAKS Remediation Lesson #1

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Transcript TAKS Remediation Lesson #1

Readiness standards comprise
65% of the U. S. History Test
4 (A)
Readiness Standard (4)
The student understands the emergence of the U.
S. as a world power between 1898 and 1920.
The Student is expected to:
(A) Explain why significant events, policies, &
individuals such as the Spanish-American War, U.
S. expansionism, Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred
Thayer Mahan, Theodore Roosevelt, Sanford B.
Dole, & missionaries moved the United States into
a position of world power
Readiness Standard (4)
The student understands the emergence of the U.
S. as a world power between 1898 and 1920.
(A) 1 The Spanish-American War
4 (A) 2 U. S. expansionism
Movement away from
traditional American
isolationism was the result of
the filling of the American
continent by the U. S. A. and
increasing trade which drew
the United States into world
How American Expansion of the
1890s Differed from Past U.S.
America had been expanding virtually
from its birth
Previous expansion had been contiguous
Territories taken in 1890s were less for
settlement than as naval bases, trading
outposts, & commercial centers on major
trade routes
The new territories were not so much
“states-in-the-making” as colonies
Classic Economic
“Factories and farms multiplied,
producing more goods than the
domestic market could consume.
Both farmers and industrialists
looked for new overseas markets,
and the growing volume of exports.
. . changed the nature of American
trade relations with the world.”
The Urge to Expand
The evolution of “Manifest Destiny”
William H.
U. S.
of State
Ahead of his time, Seward had
visions of an American Empire
stretching from the Caribbean
to Asia, including Latin
America, Canada, and many of
the strategically located Pacific
“Seward’s Folly”—the initial response to the purchase of
Alaska from Russia was not a positive one. Many Americans
believed that Seward had squandered good money for a
valueless acquisition.
Potential of Panama
Seward even
perceived the
importance of a
canal across the
Panama isthmus
(right). In 1867
he also
supervised the
annexation of the
Midway Islands
in the Pacific
President Ulysses S. Grant (left) and
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish
Both Grant and Fish favored U.S.
expansion. The president wanted
American influence in the
Caribbean, the Pacific, and Latin
America. Fish did much to
ameliorate Anglo-American
relations by working to settle the
“Alabama Claims,” remuneration
for damages done to Union ships
by Confederate vessels
constructed by the British and
sold to the South.
James G. Blaine
In the contemporary spirit of
an international hunt for
territory—the so-called “New
Imperialism of the late-19th
century—Secretary of State
Blaine was aggressive in
acquiring markets in Latin
America, Asia, and Africa.
Blaine “envisaged a
hemispheric system of
peaceful intercourse,
arbitration of disputes, and
expanded trade.”
Grover Cleveland (left) and Defense
of the Monroe Doctrine
In 1895, President Cleveland
adopted an aggressive Latin
American policy. He attempted to
intervene in a dispute between the
British and Venezuela over the
Venezuelan-British Guiana
boundary—a region in which gold
had been recently discovered.
Invoking the Monroe Doctrine,
Cleveland insisted that the matter
be submitted to arbitration.
submitted the
matter to
arbitration in
1896 initiating a
new era of
British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury (right)
Salisbury “bluntly repudiated the Monroe Doctrine as
international law.”
Benjamin F. Tracy, Secretary of the
Navy under President Benjamin
Greatly influenced by the writings of
naval strategists—especially Alfred
Thayer Mahan (below)—Tracy
supported the Big Navy advocates who
aspired to create a two-ocean fleet of
battleships that could strike enemies in
distant parts of the globe. When Tracy
assumed his post as Naval Secretary
(1889) the U.S. Navy ranked 12th in the
world. The developments he set in
motion elevated that ranking to third
by the end of the century
4 (A) 4 Alfred Thayer Mahan
The Influence of Sea Power
Upon History
Mahan’s writings insisted that future U. S.
prosperity depended on access to world
markets; the U. S. needed a strong navy to
protect their trade routes; advocated
annexation of Hawaii and construction of
canal through Panama. Mahan believed that
industrialism “produced vast surpluses of
agricultural and manufactured goods, for
which markets must be found. Markets
involved distant ports; reaching them
required a large merchant marine and a
powerful navy to protect it.”
4 (A) 3 Henry Cabot Lodge
Of the sympathies of the
American people, generous,
liberty-loving, I have no question.
They are with the Cubans in their
struggle for freedom. I believe
our people would welcome any
action on the part of the United
States to put an end to the terrible
state of things existing there. We
can stop it. . . . We mean to stop
the horrible state of things in
After the war, Lodge Cuba and it will be stopped. The
great power of the United States,
was part of the
imperialist faction if it is once invoked and uplifted,
is capable of greater things than
within the Senate.
4 (A) 5 Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
read Superiorité des
French volume
arguing that the
peoples were
superior—as he
prepared to
participate in the
War of 1898.
Darwinist Applications
The late-19th century
was awash in
Darwinist currents of
thought. Many learned
men of the day
considered “survival of
the fittest” to be a
valid concept that
applied not only to the
animal kingdom but to
relations between
4 (A) 6 Sanford B. Dole
Longtime resident of
Hawaii who, as a
lawyer & jurist,
opposed the native
royal family,
supported American
immigrants, &
westernization of
Hawaiian culture &
Acquisition of Hawaii—the
“Crossroads of the Pacific”
By 1820, U.S. missionaries had arrived intending to
convert the natives to Christianity
American planters developed Hawaii’s rich soil and made
healthy profits off of sugar production—Hawaii became
increasingly dependent economically on the U.S.
planters aided by
U. S. Marines
overthrew Queen
President McKinley’s
administration annexed Hawaii
McKinley feared that some other power—
notably the Japanese that comprised a quarter
of Hawaii’s population—might take the islands
U.S. Opponents of annexation worried about the
“mongrelization” of the population—In July
1898, in the midst of the excitement of the
Spanish-American War,
McKinley annexed Hawaii—McKinley did this
through a joint resolution rather than a treaty
The latter required only a majority in both
houses while the former required two-thirds
A valuable
and naval base
in the middle
of the Pacific
A stepping stone
on the route to
4 (A) 7 Missionary-ism
American Missionaries saw
imperialist annexation of Hawaii
as an opportunity to convert the
heathen natives to Christianity.
They viewed native culture
4 (A) 1 Spanish-American War
War with Spain
“The war with Spain in 1898 built a mood of national confidence,
altered older, more insular patterns of thought, and reshaped the way
Americans saw themselves and the world. . . . [The war] raised
questions about war itself, colonies, and subject peoples. The war left a
lingering strain of isolation and antiwar feeling that affected later
policy. It also left an American empire, small by European standards,
but quite new to the American experience. . . . and the United States
was recognized as a ‘world power.’ The Spanish-American War
established the United States as a dominant force for the twentieth
century. It brought America colonies and millions of colonial subjects;
it brought responsibilities of governing an empire and protecting it. . . .
It involved the country in other nations’ arguments and affairs. The
war strengthened the office of the presidency, swept the nation together
in a tide of emotion, and confirmed the long-standing belief in the
superiority of the New World over the Old. When it was over,
Americans looked outward as never before, touched, they were sure,
with a special destiny.
The Players
Valeriano “Butcher”
Weyler y Nicolau
William Randolph
Hearst-publisher of New
York newspaper
the Journal
George Dewey—
Commodore who
commanded U. S.
naval squadron in
Hong Kong
Theodore Roosevelt
The 39-year old Theodore Roosevelt was
among a large group of Americans who,
in 1898, believed that “nations must fight
every now and then to prove their power
and test the national spirit. . . . Nations
needed to fight in order to survive.”
Reasons Roosevelt supported
the War against Spain:
• To free Cuba and expel Spain from
the Western Hemisphere
• Inspire Americans to focus on
something other than material gain
• Provide the U.S. army and navy
with an opportunity to practice
their craft
Pro-War Newspaper
William Randolph
Hearst (left) published
the New York Journal
and Joseph Pulitzer
(right) published the
New York World. These
two men captured
large readerships with
their bold headlines,
lavish illustrations,
and sensational--and
often inaccurate-stories.
McKinley’s Outlook on War
Initially, McKinley sought to
maintain a neutral position
McKinley offered to mediate the
conflict but Spain refused
In 1898, McKinley sent the battleship
Maine to Havana to demonstrate U.S.
strength and protect American citizens
A private letter by Spanish Ambassador to the U.S., Enrique
Dupuy de Lôme, became public;it included several
insulting observations about President McKinley and
betrayed Spanish insincerity in the negotiating process
Sinking of the Maine
The Maine enters
Havana Harbor.
There were 266
American sailors
who died in the
blast. A popular
slogan of the day
“Remember the
Maine and to Hell
with Spain!”
Declaration of War
On April 19, 1898, Congress passed a joint
resolution declaring Cuba independent and
authorizing the president to use force to evict the
On April 21, Spain severed relations with the
On April 22, McKinley proclaimed a naval
blockade of Cuba
On April 25, Congress passed a declaration of
war with Spain and the president signed it
Two Views of the Conflict
John Hay (above)
who became
Secretary of State
described it as a
“splendid little war.”
Alternatively, author
Sherwood Anderson
suggested that the U.S.
taking on Spain was “like
robbing an old gypsy
woman in a vacant lot at
night after the fair.”
Whatever one’s point of
view, the conflict was
decidedly lopsided and
lasted a mere ten weeks.
Manila Bay
U. S. navy under Commodore
George Dewey, commander of
America’s Asiatic Squadron,
steamed from Hong Kong to
the Philippines where he sank
or captured the entire Spanish
Territories Acquired by the U.S. as a
Result of the Spanish-American War
What Was Cuba’s Status as a Result
of the Spanish-American War?
The caricature below offers another
interpretation of what occurred when the
U.S. went to war against Spain
Cuba became an
nation. . . more
or less.
Teller Amendment
Colorado Senator Henry
M. Teller’s declaration was
part of a joint resolution
demanding that Spain
withdraw from Cuba;
Teller Amendment
renounced any plan of U. S.
annexation of Cuba.
Platt Amendment
The Amendment gave
U. S. right to set up
naval stations—
principally at
Guantanamo Bay—
and send troops to
Cuba to preserve
The Presidential View
While McKinley sympathized with the
Filipino desire for independence, he
feared that one of the European
imperialist nations might move into the
Philippines. Since he did not believe the
Filipino people were ready for selfgovernment,--a reflection of the racism
of the times—the president saw no other
choice but to annex and govern the
archipelago until its people were ready to
govern themselves.
Critics of Annexation of the
By terms of the treaty signed by the Spanish on December 10,
1898, the U.S. paid $20 million for the Philippines. However,
treaty ratification in the U.S. Senate precipitated a hailstorm of
debate. Those in and out of the Senate resisted annexation for a
host of different reasons.
#1 Annexation violated the very principles of
independence and self-determination on which the U.S.
was founded
#2 Some people warned about “half-breeds and semibarbaric people” who might undercut wages and
#3 The Constitution had no provision for ruling colonies
#4 Some argued that imposition of tyranny abroad would
ultimately lead to tyranny at home
Among the Critics
Carnegie so objected to the
annexation of the Philippines that he James
actually offered to purchase Filipino
independence for no less than $20—
the very price the U.S. government
paid to Spain for the annexation of
the area.
Samuel Gompers
William Jennings Bryan
(left) asserted that “this
nation cannot endure half
a republic and half a
colony—half free and half
Ironically, Bryan—who
held deeply pacifist
supported the SpanishAmerican War at its onset
and even took command
of a volunteer regiment
from his home state,
Comparison of the Spanish-American War of
1898 and the Philippine-American War of
SpanishAmerican War
President McKinley
called for 125,000
volunteers to augment
the 28,000 already in
the regular army
Traditional warfare
European soldiers
from Spain
Four times the number
of U.S. soldiers used in
the Philippines as in
Filipinos adopted
guerilla tactics ruling
the night while the U.S.
ruled the day
For the first time, the U.S.
fights men of color in Asia
5,500 Americans killed in
War’s Goal: bring
freedom to the subjects
of imperial Spain
Qualified independence
received by Cuba
4,300 U.S. lives vs.
50,000-200,000 Filipino lives
Wars Goal: implement
annexation of
Philippines and establish
imperial government
American occupation
followed by government
of the Philippines lasting
till July 4, 1946.
Open Door Notes
These notes from Secretary of
State John Hay (left) asked
that no power would prevent
others from trading within
their sphere of influence or
otherwise discriminate against
another imperial power.
Nations with Spheres of Influence in
China by 1914
The U.S. wanted
two things:
Respect for
The relatively transparent purpose of the Open Door
Notes sent by Secretary of State Hay was to keep China
independent and open to trade from all nations. As the
cartoon to the left suggests, U.S. policy also sought to
preserve at least a modicum of Chinese sovereignty.
Does the Constitution Follow the
Do the inhabitants of U.S. colonies
have the same rights as American
citizens? Ironically, in general
principle, this was the very question
asked by the Founding Fathers when
they were denied their demand of
“No taxation without
The Secretary of War wryly noted, “as near
as I can make out the Constitution does
follow the flag—but doesn’t quite catch up
with it.”
Boxer Rebellion
In June 1900, a
secret Chinese
society (Boxers)
rose to expel
foreigners in
China. They
killed over 200
Europeans and
attacked Peking
buildings owned
by foreign
The Boxer
was the
first real
test of the
The rising lasted for 2 months before a joint
European and American military force arrived
in Beijing to relieve those who had taken refuge
in the British compound.
“China never wanted
foreigners any more than
foreigners wanted
Chinamen, and on this
question I am with the
Boxers every time. The
Boxer is a patriot. He
loves his country better
than he does the countries
of other people. I wish
him success. The Boxer
believes in driving us out
of his country. I am a
Boxer too, for I believe in
driving him out of our
Impacts on American Foreign Policy
Into the 20th Century
• McKinley, riding a wave of patriotism generated
from success in the war, successfully defends
against William Jennings Byran’s anti-imperialist
campaign in the election of 1900
• The U.S. has become an imperial power and, with
that turn of events, assumes the role of instructor
(see cartoon above) of the peoples now newly
under American rule
• It now dealt on equal terms with Europe
• It dominated the Western Hemisphere
• It was a major power in Asia
Domestic Developments at the End
of the Century
 Deterioration in American race relations
If African-American soldiers acquitted themselves well in
the Spanish-American War in Cuba, it also confirmed
notions of “racial superiority” and “inferior races” in the
minds of many Americans. In a regrettable respect, it
actually brought together whites in both North and South
in a smug, self-satisfied and self-flattering union rooted in
a confidence in their own racial superiority.
• Republican Party Dominance
The Republicans would dominate domestic politics until
1932 when the Great Depression ushered in an era of
Democratic leadership.