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US History
Chapter 8 Section 3
The U.S. Home Front
Causes of World War I
Review
M
?
A
?
European Tensions
Rising caused by
I
?
N
?
Where is the
“A” in MANIA
Causes of World War I
Review
?
 European nations
engaged in massive
military buildup
?
 European countries
form partnerships
to protect
themselves
European Tensions
Rising caused by
?
 Rival empires seek
to keep power
Where is the
“A” in ???
?
 People feel loyalty
and devotion to
their country or
culture
Enough for War Yet?
Germans
sink 3 U.S.
merchant
ships
Unrestricted
Submarine
Warfare
US
Declaration
of War?
Sinking of
Lusitania
Zimmerman
Note
Main Idea
• The United States mobilized a variety of
resources to wage World War I
Reading Focus
• How did U.S. government mobilize economy to
support war effort?
• How did workers mobilize on the home front?
• How did the government try to influence public
opinion about
the war?
Mobilizing the Economy
 War cost money!! How were we going to pay for this war?
 Congress passed the War Revenue Act of 1917 which authorized
an increase in taxes on Americans
* Taxed wealthiest Americans the hardest- > 77%
(increased federal revenue by 400% in 2 years)
* Government borrowed money from Americans in the form
of Liberty Bonds (loan from people to government)
 National Debt grew dramatically> 1916- 1.2 billion
> 1919- 25.5 billion
American Regulation
Regulating Industry
- Congress created several admin
boards to prepare nation for war
- War Industries Board- Powerful
agency that could regulate ALL
Materials needed to support war
- WIB regulated all materials /
production
Regulating Food
- Congress ensured troops had food
- Lever Food and Fuel Control ActGovernment granted power to set
prices and production control
- Herbert Hoover led the Food
Administration - “Victory Gardens”
- Prohibition
Regulating Fuel
- Congress monitored fuel production
- Fuel Administration- encouraged
fuel production / Harry Garfield
introduces Daylight Savings Time to
promote longer work hours
- Promoted fuel conservation“Gassless Sundays” and “Heatless
Mondays”
How can we supply
our troops with
needed commodities
Mobilizing the Workers
 Because of the war, businesses boomed and make great profits
(especially in oil, steel, and chemical companies)
 U.S. primary supplier of war> Great Britain- 1 billion rounds of ammo / 1.2 million rifles / ½
million tons of explosives
 Many workers joined unions (dangerous conditions because of
demand and high-paced production) 1916-1919 > 60% increase
 National War Labor Board- Created to meet the demands of the
American worker and settle disputes
> set 8 hour work days / urged businesses to recognize labor unions / granted
women equal pay
Influenza
 War effort affected by flu
outbreak 1918-1919
 Unsanitary conditions on
Western front contributed to
epidemic
 Flu outbreak affected
Americans back in the states as
well
> Oct 1918- 200K Americans died
 Flu killed 675K Americans (deadliest
epidemic in US History)
Influencing Public Opinion
 Wilson made efforts to gain public opinion to support war
 Creates Committee on Public Information (CPI)- Appoints George
Creel to head department
> Creel begins nationwide campaign of propaganda to support the
war effort
Limiting Anti-War Speech
 Majority of Americans supported war effort but still many spoke out
against the war
 Woodrow Wilson Response- 1917- Congress passes Espionage Act
> punishes people who aid enemy
> Punishes people who refuse to serve in military
 1918- Congress passes Sedition Act
> illegal for Americans to “utter, print, write, or publish and
disloyal or abusive language“ criticizing the government or military
 Eugene Debs v. United States
 Schenk v. United States
Two supreme court cases
resulting from these acts