Hinduism and Buddhism

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Transcript Hinduism and Buddhism

Ancient Religions
Development of Hinduism
• Originated in India following the invasion
of the Aryans
• Cannot be traced to one single founder
• Polytheism - belief in many gods
Beliefs of Hinduism
• Moksha - state of perfect understanding,
achieved by liberation from desires and
• Reincarnation - rebirth of the soul until
perfect understanding is achieved
• Karma - good or bad deeds that follow from
one life to another
• Jainism - religion based upon nonviolence,
developed from Hinduism
Development of Buddhism
• Influenced by Hinduism, originated in India
• Founded by Siddhartha Guatama
– Life is about suffering
– Sought religious answers through fasting and
– Became known as Buddha (“the enlightened
• Eventually spread and established itself as
the main religion of China and Japan
Beliefs of Buddhism
• Nirvana - state of enlightenment reached by
releasing oneself from selfishness and pain
• The Four Noble Truths - main ideas
Life is suffering and sorrow
Cause of suffering is desire for pleasures
Way to end suffering is to end all desires
Overcome desires by following a staircase
• The Eightfold Path - staircase towards
enlightenment achieved over many lifetimes
Hinduism vs. Buddhism
Originated in India
No sole founder
Moksha - state of
perfect understanding
• Reincarnation
• Follows caste system
• Major religion of India
Originated in India
Founded by Buddha
Nirvana - state of
• Reincarnation
• Rejects caste system
• Major religion of
China and Japan today
Development of Judaism
• Palestine - cultural crossroads of the ancient
world, connecting Asia and Africa
• Canaan - area of land in Palestine which God had
promised the Hebrew people
• Abraham - “father” of the Hebrew people
• Torah - first five books of the Hebrew Bible
• Yahweh - god of the Hebrew people
• Monotheism - belief in a single god
Hebrew Migrations
• ~2000 B.C. Abraham moved his people
from Ur to Canaan (reason?)
• ~1650 B.C. descendants of Abraham move to
Egypt (reason?)
• The Exodus - ~1300 - 1200 B.C. the Hebrews flee
– Moses - led the Hebrew people out of slavery
– The Ten Commandments - teachings delivered by
Moses as a basis for Hebrew law
The Exodus
The Kingdom of Israel
• ~1020 - 922 B.C. the Hebrews united under
three kings
– Saul - drove Philistines from Palestine
– David - established Jerusalem as the capital
– Solomon - most powerful and lavish king
• ~922 B.C. the kingdom divided into two
– Israel in the north
– Judah in the south
• Eventually fell to Assyrians and Persians