World Trends in Food Consumption

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Transcript World Trends in Food Consumption

Global Trends in Food
Food is our common ground, a
universal experience.
– James Beard
Germany : The Melander family of Bargteheide
Food expenditure for one week: 375.39
Euros or $500.07
United States : The Revis family of North Carolina
Food expenditure for one week: $341.98
Japan: The Ukita family of Kodaira City
Food expenditure for one week: 37,699
Yen or $317.25
Italy: The Manzo family of Sicily
Food expenditure for one week:
214.36 Euros or $260.10
Mexico: The Casales family of Cuernavaca
Food expenditure for one week: 1,862.78
Mexican Pesos or $189.09
Poland: The Sobczynscy family of Konstancin-Jeziorna
Food expenditure for one week: 582.48 Zlotys or
Egypt: The Ahmed family of Cairo
Food expenditure for one week: 387.85
Egyptian Pounds or $68.53
Ecuador: The Ayme family of Tingo
Food expenditure for one week:
Bhutan: The Namgay family of
Shingkhey Village
Food expenditure for one week:
224.93 ngultrum or $5.03
Chad: The Aboubakar family of Breidjing Camp
Food expenditure for one week: 685 CFA
Francs or $1.23
Social and Cultural Norms
• Practices that are viewed acceptable by those
in a society
• These views influence what people value,
tolerate, eat, and the way they interact
• Identify the Social Norm
Foods can be social norms
Horse Butcher in France
Foie Gras – Duck liver
that’s been force fed
grain in order to fatten.
Sun Dried
Sea Horse
Balut Egg at 15 days old
Cambodian Dog Market
Horn worm eaten in South Africa
Chilled Monkey Brain
To understand how animals are useful to
humanity, we must understand the factors
that influence where and how animals live,
and their uses to humans.
– W. Stephen Damron
Geography’s Influence
What enables a plant or
animal to thrive in an area?
• An organism’s ability to adjust for survival in
a specific environment
• Caused by:
– Climatic Stresses
– Nutritional Stresses
– Internal Stresses
– Geographical Stresses
– Social Stresses
Climatic Stresses
• Climate is the long-time pattern of
meteorological factors
• Weather is the immediate condition of these
factors in a given area
• Primarily effects plants, but indirectly
impacts animals.
• What are some examples of climates?
Climates of the World
Social and Cultural Norms
• Religion, recreation, and social customs help
establish an animals value
– A value established by one of these factors is
often greater than the animal’s food or work value
Impact on the
Food we
• Followers are called Muslim
• Foods are called “Halal” which means
“Lawful” or “Haram” which means “Unlawful”,
each are identified in the Quaran
• Unlawful foods are:
– Animals who die on their own
– Blood
– Meat from pigs (Almost no swine are found in
Islamic heavy areas)
– Animals dedicated to other than Allal
• Zabihah is the prescribed method of animal
– Animal must be fully conscious
– Slaughter must be done by a Muslim or “People of
the Book” (Jew, Christian, or Rastafarian)
– God’s name must be spoken at the time of
• Fish must have fins and scales to be “Halal”
– Catfish and some shellfish come into question
Islamic Populations
• According to the Judaist dietary laws of the
Old Testament
– Cloven footed animals who chew the cud is considered
– All fish with fins and scales are considered clean
– Insects of the locust family are considered clean
– Meat from the Pig and Camel are unclean
– All carnivorous birds, sea creatures without fins and
scales, and most insects, rodents, and reptiles are
• Kashrut is the Jewish law dealing with food, common term
used is Kosher
• No Rabbi blessing necessary to be Kosher
• Slaughter methods
– Animal must be fully conscious
– Meat is then broiled or soaked in salt water to extract remaining
– Must be done by a shochet (butcher) who is a holy man trained in
Jewish law
• May not eat animals that die of natural causes or that were
killed by other animals
• Animal must have no disease or flaws in the organs at the
time of slaughter.
• Under the Old Testament, Christians would
be held to the diet of Judaism
• However, in Acts 10:9-15 Peter was praying
and became hungry. He fell into a trance and
the heavens opened up with something like a
large white sheet being let down from the
corners. It contained all kinds of four-footed
animals, as well as reptiles of the earth and
birds of the air. God said, “Get up, Peter. Kill
and eat.”
• Peter replied, “Surely not Lord! I have never
eaten anything impure or unclean.” The
voice spoke a second time, “Do not call
anything impure that God has made clean.”
• Christians use this verse to justify eating all
• Concentrated in India, the Hindu religion
believes that all God’s creatures are
deserving of respect and compassion
• Vegetarian diets are encouraged
• However, some Hindu believers choose to eat
meat – beef and pork is strictly forbidden!
• The Cow is seen as sacred and can neither be
slaughtered or sold for slaughter
• Milk from the cow can be consumed
• Is it possible that some cultures began to view
particular animals with high importance due
to the service they could provide rather than
• Example – were swine deemed unclean
because they could consume/get ride of every
day wastes? Or was the camel proven to be a
better beast of burden that a quick meal?