artists paint scenes of daily life

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Transcript artists paint scenes of daily life

1. Name two major differences between Mesopotamia and Egypt.
2. What was the major purpose for the building of pyramids?
3. Who signed the world’s first peace treaty?
4. What was one method Khufu used to ensure that his power
would be accepted?
5. What natural barrier protects the Egyptians to the north?
The Nile River
Overflowed from July to October
Left behind layer of fertile mud
The Nile River
Farmers planted wheat,
barley, and flax seeds
Had irrigation system using
basins, or bowl-shaped
holes, to trap floodwaters,
and canals to carry the
Shadoof: bucket attached to
a long pole (still used today)
Trading with Mesopotamia may have led
to ideas about government
Villages led by chiefs
Narmer (Menes), king of Upper Egypt,
took control of Lower Egypt (Nile Delta)
by force
Dynasty started with Menes
Dynasty lasted 2,800 years with 31
Means “great house”
Obeyed without question
Considered to be son of Ra
(Re), the sun god
Many people believed his
actions determined fate of
Deity - god or goddess
Why do you think Re was so powerful to
Hapi ruled the Nile River.
Isis represented the loyal wife and mother
Osiris ruled over the dead; husband of Isis
Thought afterlife would be even better than life on
Believed only pharaohs and elites enjoyed afterlife
Embalmed pharaoh because they believed he would
still take care of Egypt from afterlife and needed a
body to do it
Embalming led to them to know about the body
Used herbs and drugs to treat illness
Sewed up wounds and fixed broken bones
Wrote first medical books on papyrus
Built mostly by farmers during floods
Led to advances in the calendar and math
Great Pyramid built for King Khufu; located in Giza
Old Kingdom
Capital in Memphis
Pharaohs lost control;
Egypt in chaos for 200
Moved capital to Thebes
Middle Kingdom
Time of peace and stability
Conquered Nubia and modern-day Syria
Forced conquered people to pay tribute, forced
payments to the pharaoh
Middle Kingdom
Arts flourished; artists paint scenes of daily life
(how we get a lot of our information about the
Instead of pyramids, pharaohs had temples
carved into cliffs; became known as Valley of
the Kings
The Middle Kingdom
Ended when Egypt was invaded by the Hyksos
Hyksos were mighty warriors; rode horse-drawn
carriages; used weapons made of bronze and iron
Egyptians fought on foot with weapons made of
copper and stone
The New Kingdom
Egyptian prince named
Ahmose drove out Hyksos
120 years later
Began New Kingdom
(1550 B.C.E to 1080
The New Kingdom
Hatshepsut started ruling with her
husband; made herself pharaoh
Traded for gold, incense, ivory,
ebony, and wood
Temple in Valley of the Kings
The New Kingdom
Hatshepsut’s nephew, Thutmose
III expanded Egypt’s borders to
the Euphrates River
What are some things that you
think Egypt gained when they
conquered lands?
Conquered people were enslaved
Slavery becomes widespread
The New Kingdom
Amenhotep IV ruled with his wife, Nefertiti
Priests were gaining power
He said only one god, Aton, was to be worshipped
Priests objected; he removed them
Changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning “Spirit of Aton”
Egypt lost most of their land in Asia (Hittites)
King Tut was Amenhotep’s son-in-law
The New Kingdom
Ramses II most successful in revamping Egypt;
ruled for 60 years
Temple is in Valley of the Kings
After Ramses, pharaohs had trouble keeping
neighboring countries under Egyptian control
Fall of Egypt
By 1150 B.C.E., Egyptians had lost their empire;
controlled only the Nile Delta
First conquerors were Libyans
The Kush ruled Egypt for 70 years until they were taken
over by Assyrians in 670 B.C.E.