01 Pertemuan Ke-1 dan Ke-2 Diagnosis Multiaksial

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Transcript 01 Pertemuan Ke-1 dan Ke-2 Diagnosis Multiaksial

Psikologi abnormal
DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorder) published by American Psychiatric
Association (APA)
In Indonesia, mental disorder diagnosis classify in
PPDGJ (Pedoman Penggolongan dan Diagnostik
Gangguan Jiwa)  based on DSM and ICD
(International Classification of Diseases) published by
Diagnosis Multiaxial
DSM pertama kali diperkenalkan di tahun 1952.
DSM diterbitkan oleh APA (American Psychiatric
Classification in DSM - IV (1994) are description,
atheoretical, and multiaxial  more comprehensif
(Millon & Davis, 2000)  DSM IV - TR
DSM-IV-TR includes five axes = multiaxial
classification system, by requiring judgements on
each of the five axes, forces the diagnostician to
consider a broad range of information
Pada tahun 1939, WHO (World Health
Organization) memasukkan gangguan jiwa ke
dalam ICD (International List of Causes of Death)
5 Axes in DSM-IV-TR
Axes I:
Clinical Disorder
 Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
Axes II:
Personality Disorder
 Mental Retardation
Axes III: General Medical Condition
Axes IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems
Axes V: Global Assesment of Functioning (GAF) Scale
5 Axes in DSM-IV-TR
Axes I:
Clinical Disorder
 Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
Axes II:
Personality Disorder
 Mental Retardation
Axes III: General Medical Condition
Axes IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems
Axes V: Global Assesment of Functioning (GAF) Scale
Tujuan Pembedaan Aksis I, II, III:
1. encourage thoroughness in evaluation
2. enhance communication among health
Tidak mengimplikasikan bahwa ada perbedaan
fundamental dalam konseptualisasinya  tidak
ingin mengatakan bhw. Ggn mental tidak
berhubungan dengan proses atau faktor fisik,
biologis atau psikososial
Aksis I dan II:
Isi mata kuliah Psikologi Abnormal
(kecuali mental retardation)
Aksis III:
General Medical Condition (GMC)
Current general medical conditions that are
potentially relevant to the understanding or
management of the individual’s mental disorder.
GMC can be related to mental disorders in
several ways:
Bila GMC merupakan etiologi perkembangan atau
memburuknya simtom mental  efek fisiologis, mis.
Hypothyroidism penyebab simtom depresi
Aksis I: mood disorder due to hypothyroidism
with depressive features
Aksis III: hypothyroidism
Hub antara GMC mgkn ada, tp tdk jelas
Aksis I: dituliskan simtom mentalnya apa
Aksis III: GMC nya apa
GMC dicatat pada Aksis III, meskipun tak
berhubungan langsung dengan ggn mental, krn
penting untuk memahami keseluruhan treatment
individu. Mis. Individu yang depresi karena
diagnosis kanker payudara
Aksis I: Adjustment disorder with depressed
Aksis III: kanker payudara
GMC dicatat untuk tujuan pharmacotherapy
(supaya tidak overlap dalam pemberian obat)
Aksis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental
Psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect
the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of mental disorders:
- negative life events
- environmental difficulties or deficiencies
- familial or other interpersonal stress
- inadequacy of social support or personal
- positive stressors (mis. Promosi, pernikahan) yang
menyebabkan stress.
Cara menulis pada Aksis IV:
Problems with primary support group (e.g. death of
a family, remarriage of parent)
Problems related to the social environment (e.g.
inadequate social support, living alone, retirement)
Educational problems (e.g. academic, discord with
Occupational problems (unemployment, job
Housing problems (e.g. homelessness, inadequate
Economic problems (e.g. extreme poverty)
Problems with access to health care service
(e.g.transport unavailable)
Problems related to interaction with the legal
system/crime (e.g. arrest)
Other psychosocial and environmental problems
(e.g. exposure to disasters, wars)
- note only those psychosocial and environmental
problems that have been present during the year
preceeding the current evaluation
- bila masalah terjadi lebih dari 1 tahun  catat
bila jelas memberi kontribusi, atau telah menjadi
fokus treatment
Aksis 5: Global Assessment of Functioning
(GAF) Scale
Berdasarkan pertimbangan berfungsinya secara
psikologis, sosial & okupasional, pada suatu
kontinum hipotesis dari kesehatan-gangguan
Jangan memasukkan hendaya dalam berfungsi
yang berhubungan dengan keterbatasan fisik atau
GAF Scale
Consider psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a
hypothetical continuum of mental heal/illness. Do not include
impairment in functioning due to physical (or environment)
: Inadequate information
1-10 : Persistent danger of severely hurting self or others/
persistent inability to maintain minimal personal hygiene
51-60 : moderate symptoms/moderate difficulty in social,
occupational, or school functioning
91-100: No symptoms, superior functioning in a wide range of
Contoh Penulisan Diagnosis
Aksis I
Aksis II
Aksis III
Aksis IV
Aksis V
: (296.23) Gangguan depresi berat, tanpa
ciri psikotik
: (301.6) Gangguan kepribadian dependen,
sering menggunakan mekanisme
defense denial
: tidak ada
: ancaman kehilangan pekerjaan
: GAF=35 (current)
Diagnosis Multiaxial
Axes I
Axes II
Axes III
Axess IV
Axes V
: (296.23) Severe major depression,
without psychotic feature
: (301.6) Personality disorder, defence
mechanism denial
: none
: Occupational Problem
: GAF=35 (current)
Current issues related to
Disorder that might be included in DSM-V
 Behavioral
 Definition:
excessive use sex, shopping, or computers may
signal addiction. These behavior can be taken to such
extremes that they easily mimic the behaviors of drug
 Binge
Eating Disorder
 Definition:
individuals who binge are unable to control
periods of overeating and feel guilty or disgusted with
themselves. They often become obese. Some eat alone to
avoid feelings of shame.
Current issues related to
Complicated Grief
 Definition:
after the death of someone close, grief and
sadness normally begin to dissipate within six months.
But some people continue to mourn for much longer.
Current issues related to
Disorder that might be excluded in DSM-V
 The
Paraphilia: Intense sexual urges involving animals,
children, nonconsensual sex, suffering, or humiliation are
classified as paraphilias – a term that was thought to
be relatively non judgmental when it replaced
“perversions” in 1980.
 Gender Identity Disorder: Since the DSM-III appeared
in 1980, individual who wish to be of the opposite sexand who are uncomfortable with their own-have been
diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder.