Nutrition - deliasolis
Transcript Nutrition - deliasolis
IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD NUTRITION
Food is one of the basic needs of man.It is through food that
we obtain nutritious substances needed to live,stay healthy
and carry on a happy and productive life.
During the Paleolithic Age primitive man fed from the
animals he hunted,fished and the plants he gathered. These
animals are seen in the cave paintings found in
Altamira,Spain and Lascaux,France. Here we see many
bisons,deers,cows,horses and even tigers.They were nomads
and their daily interest was feeding themselves.When their
food finished they had to move to another place were food
In the Neolithic Age man becomes sedentary ,stays in one
place and now learns how to domesticate animals and
NUTRITION AS A SCIENCE
Nutrition was recognized as a science in the 20th century.Until then we
learn about :
1.Nutritious substances in food
2.Different nutritious needs in each person according to age and
different physiological needs
3.Adecuate food for maintenance or restitution of health
All these have been used in programs of nutritional education helping
people get well through adequate diets.
We are a result of what we eat and the excess or lack of food can make
Nutrition as a science has reduced death among children and has
increased life expectancy among adults.
Nowadays nutrition is a field in medicine ,considered an important
factor in health.
WHAT IS NUTRITION?
It is the science that studies food and its
relation with health.
It is the nutrients science.
It is the process through which the organism
takes in ,digests ,absorbs,transports and uses
nutrients eliminating final products.
It’s closely related with social aspect,economy,
cultural and psychological ways.
Social aspects: geographical location,climate
Economy: place’s income
Culture: religion,customs etc.
Nutrition varies all around the world. The nutrition of the people
in certain area depends on the geographical location and the
climate.This is related to the land and the type of food that can
be grown or the natural resources obtained.
Adquiring other type of food through other means is determined
by the economy.
Culture also affects nutrition. People in certain areas eat
excess of some foods or avoid others because of religion or
customs .Some are missing necessary foods in their daily
diet.We see this happening in India.
SUBSTANCES IN NUTRIENTS
Nutrients are made up of :
Humans body is made up of the same nutrients found in food.
Water : 63%
Carbohydrates: 12 %
HOW OUR ORGANISM USES NUTRIENTS
Eating brings different chemical and physical phenomens in our body. Food
follow different nutritious processes :
Are the transformations occuring in the digestive tube simplifying
food to substance level making it easy for absorption.
In the mouth: food is chewed with saliva torn in pieces.
In the stomach:food goes through regular movements that
grind it until it turns into a liquid mass.
In the small intestine:food substances are mixed with
pancreatic and intestinal juices so as with bile to be totally
digested facilitating its absorption.
Absorption: it is the process through which nutrients go from
the small intestine to the blood circulation.
Metabolism. Are the modifications which nutrients go through
since their absorption until they are excreted.
Excretion: The organism frees substances that are no longer
useful through the kidneys and intestine.
Constructs and repairs tissues Proteins and some minerals
Protect the organism
Vitamins and some minerals
Provides energy to carry on
Good nutrition depends on several factors:
economy,cultural,educational,ecological and others.It
Is necessary to educate our population of how to
select,prepare and eat their food.Making food guides is a
stategy to reach all Honduras with a unified,simple
real,and scientific way.They are done to improve the
Honduran daily diet and contribute to their health.Food
guides adjust to social,economical ,biological forms so as
Their goal is to lower illnesses related to bad
nutrition,control deficiencies and excesses and also
increase healthy conditions among the population.
The main purpose is to give necesssary information so
people can choose their food and diet to be healthy.
NUTRITIOUS STATE OF THE POPULATION
This is known through studies done by institutions and
agencies done in different groups according to sex,age. There
are 4 nutritional problems in Honduras:
Deficiency in Protein energy
Deficiency in vitamin A
Anemia due to the deficiency in iron.
Iodine deficiency bocio endemico
Food guides have 9 messages.
Each one is oriented to prevent nutritional problems.
Each message has been planned in a simple way.
They are easy to follow and understand.
Are for all Hondurans.
They were not designed for ill people.
#1 IT IS GOOD TO EAT CORN,BEANS,RICE ,PLANTAIN AND POTATO IN
EVERY MEAL SINCE THEY NOURISH AND ARE DELICIOUS.
All these foods are rich in carbohydrates which are an energy source to
carry on different activities.
EAT FRUITS EVERY DAY ,THEY ARE HEALTHY
They are rich in vitamin C and vitamin A.
They have fiber and water.Fiber is important in digestion
avoiding hemorroids,constipation,colon cancer and heart
It is better to eat them with their skin.
Beverages made with fruits should be prepared with
Processed fruits have less vitamins.
Yellow fruits like mango,papaya,zapote,marañon are rich
in vitamin A.
It is good to eat them with meals since vitamin C absorbs
the iron that is in vegetables. We can eat an orange after
EAT VEGETABLES EVERY DAY
Vegetables have vitamin C and minerals.They have lots of
fiber so they are recommended for the digestive system. The
yellow and the green ones are rich in vitamin A which is good
to form and keep tissues like eyes,skin,respiratory and
They help in the inmunological system.
DARK GREEN LEAVES:spinach,mustard,radish and beet
DARK GREEN VEGETABLES:peppers and brocoli
YELLOW AND ORANGE VEGETABLES:carrot,squash,sweet
Leaves should be washed individually with lots of
water.Vegetables should also be washed with lots of clean
water. It is better to cook them in vapor avoiding to lose
vitamins and minerals. If they are cooked in water that
should not be thrown away ,it should be used for soups,rice
or sauces since that water has lots of vitamins and minerals.
FOR EACH TORTILLA EAT ONE TABLESPOON OF BEANS
Combination of cereals(corn)and legumes(beans)
form protein of good quality compared with those
from animal products. Examples:
Tortilla and beans – rice and beans – tamalitos
pisques – rice with soy bean – tortilla and soy bean
These combinations equal one ounce of meat or an
Tortillas are a good source of calcium when the
corn is cooked with lime.Calcium is good for the
formation of teeth and bones.
Tortillas and beans are an energy source since they
#5 EAT AN EGG,CHEESE SLICE OR A GLASS OF
MILK TWICE A WEEK.
These help in growth.
Diary products are proteins.They also have
calcium,minerals and vitamins.
Eggs have proteins which helps in growth,forms
and repairs tissues.They also have vitamin B ,iron
and calcium. There are different types of eggs
that can be eaten:hen,turkey,geese,duck,etc.
#6 ONCE A WEEK EAT MEAT TO FORTIFY BLOOD.
Meats have lots of proteins,iron,zinc,and vitaminB for
forming and repairing tissues and also for growth.
Liver is rich in iron and in vitamin A .Iron is an important
nutrient for the formation of blood. Zinc is a mineral also
found in meat and it is essential for growth,defense of
organism,healthy skin and increases apetite.
Eating meat once a week can prevent anemia since it
#7 USE IODINE SALT AND VIT. A FORTIFIED SUGAR
Salt with no iodine can inflamate thyroid gland and
Cause mental retardness.Iodine is found in seafood.Since
seafood is hard to get or sometimes expensive the authorities
of PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT have commanded the
addition of iodine to the salt sold.
Too much salt can cause hipertension,heart and kidneys
diseases. Try to avoid using wet salt since it affects the iodine
Deficiency of vitamin A can increase child mortality.Vitamin A
is found in green fruits and vegetables
So as in dark yellow ones and in liver. Since these foods are
not consumed in a proper way the PUBLIC HEALTH
DEPARTMENT has ordered the fortification of sugar with
vitamin A since this product is consumed enormously all
around our country.
#8 WASH HANDS BEFORE EATING, COVER FOOD AND
To avoid diarreah and cholera food must be prepared and
kept safe from flies,dust, dirty utensils and hands.
Wash hands before handling food and after going to the
Use boiled or water with clorox.
Keep water in clean and closed recipients.
Fruits and vegetables must be washed in clean water.
Grains and dry food should be kept away from rats,
Roaches ,etc. Meats and cheeses must be kept in the
#9 TO STAY HEALTHY FOLLOW THE FOOD
GUIDE PYRAMID WHEN EATING.
HONDURAN FOOD IS DIVERSE . IT INCLUDES:
MEATS,POULTRY,FISH,SOUPS,RICE,SAUCES, AND STEWS.THERE IS ALSO A GREAT VARIETY
OF DESSERTS AND BEVERAGES. ALL THIS IS DUE TO THE BIG DIVERSITY IN VEGETATION
SO AS IN FAUNA AND TO THE SEVERAL DIFFERENT AREAS AND ETHNIC GROUPS.
THE BASIC INGREDIENTS IN THE MAYORITY OF STEWS, SOUPS AND MEATS ARE
TOMATOES,GARLIC,PEPPERS,ONION, CILANTRUM AND CUMMINS.ALL THESE ARE
CHOPPED AND COOKED TOGETHER .IT IS KNOWN AS SOFRITO. THAT IS OUR BASE FOR
THE FOLLOWING STEPS.IT IS USED FOR ENCHILADAS,TACOS,CHICKEN,SOUP, CHICKEN
STEW,BEEF STEW ,RICE WITH CHICKEN,SEA FOOD AND MANY MORE.
WHEN COOKING,THE AMOUNT OF HEAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED. WHILE FRYING , THE
HEAT MUST BE HIGH BUT NOT WHEN STEWING.
THE WAY YOU CUT YOUR MEATS AND VEGETABLES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED TOO IF
YOU WANT CERTAIN FLAVORS. THIS CAN ALTER THE TASTE .
IF THE VEGETABLES ARE PUT IN A BLENDER THEY WILL TASTE DIFFERENT THAN IF YOU
SLICE OR CHOP THEM.
THE AMOUNT OF TIME IS ALSO IMPORTANT. IT WILL ALL DEPEND ON THE TYPE OF