Transcript Dry skin

Dry skin
Dry skin. Simple dry skin — the kind you 
get in winter when the air is cold and rooms
are overheated — is by far the most common
cause of
itchy, flaking skin. But flakes from dry skin 
are generally smaller and less than those
caused by dandruff
 Ordinary dry skin (xerosis) usually isn't
serious, but it can be uncomfortable and
unsightly, turning plump cells into shriveled
ones and creating fine lines and wrinkles.
More serious dry skin conditions, such as the
inherited group of disorders called ichthyosis,
can sometimes be disfiguring enough to
cause psychological distress.
 Fortunately, most dry skin results from environmental
factors that can be wholly or partially controlled. These
include exposure to hot or cold weather with low
humidity levels, long-term use of air conditioning or
central heating, and excessive bathing.
 Chronic or severe dry skin problems may require a
dermatologist's evaluation. But first you can do a lot on
your own to improve your skin, including using
moisturizers, bathing less and avoiding harsh, drying
 Dry skin is often just a temporary problem — one you
experience only in winter, for example — but it may be
a lifelong concern. And although skin is often driest on
your arms, lower legs and the sides of your abdomen,
this pattern can vary considerably from person to
person. What's more, signs and symptoms of dry skin
depend on your age, your health status, your locale,
the amount of time you spend outdoors, and the cause
of the problem.
 If you have dry skin due to normal aging, you're likely
to experience one or more of the following:
 A feeling of skin tightness, especially after showering,
bathing or swimming
 Skin that appears shrunken or dehydrated
 Skin that feels and looks rough rather than smooth
 Itching (pruritus) that sometimes may be intense
 Slight to severe flaking, scaling or peeling
 Fine lines or cracks
 Redness
 Deep fissures that may bleed.
 (pruritus, pain, itching and inflammation sometimes
lead to bacterial infection,also roughness, flaking,loss
of flexibility elasticity, fissures and hyperkeratosis.
 Most dry skin is caused by environmental
exposures, such as:
 Weather. In general, your skin is driest in winter,
when temperatures and humidity levels plummet.
Winter conditions also tend to make many existing
skin conditions worse. But the reverse may be true
if you live in desert regions, where summer
temperatures can top 110 F and humidity levels
sink to 10 percent or less.
 Central heating and air conditioning. Central air
and heating, wood-burning stoves, space heaters
and fireplaces all reduce humidity and dry your
 Hot baths and showers. Frequent showering
or bathing, especially if you like the water hot
and your baths long, breaks down the lipid
barriers in your skin. So does frequent
swimming, particularly in heavily chlorinated
 Harsh soaps and detergents. Many popular
soaps and detergents strip lipids and water
from your skin. Deodorant and antibacterial
soaps are usually the most damaging, as are
many shampoos, which dry out skin.
 Generally the cardinal sign is the decrease the
moisture content of the stratum corneum than
 Other factors
Other factors, including certain diseases, can
significantly alter the function and appearance of your
skin. These include:
 Psoriasis. This skin condition is marked by a rapid
buildup of rough, dry, dead skin cells that form thick
 Thyroid disorders. Hypothyroidism, a condition that
occurs when your thyroid produces too little thyroid
hormones, reduces the activity of your sweat and oil
glands, leading to rough, dry skin.
 Alcohol and drugs. Alcohol and caffeine can visibly
dry your skin. Prescription drugs such as diuretics,
antihistamines and isotretinoin (Accutane
Risk factors
 Dry skin is a nearly universal problem, but certain
factors make you more likely to develop tightness,
flakiness and fine lines. These factors include:
 Your age. As you age, your skin tends to become
drier because your oil-producing glands become
less active. Your complexion can appear rough and
dull. The lack of oil also causes cells to clump
together in flakes or scales.
 Your sex. Although everyone's skin changes with
age, a man's skin tends to stay moist longer than a
woman's does. Men experience a relatively small
decrease in oil production until well into their 80s,
whereas women's skin tends to become much drier
after menopause
 Sun exposure. Like all types of heat, the
sun dries your skin. Yet damage from
ultraviolet (UV) radiation penetrates far
beyond the top layer of skin (epidermis).
The most significant damage occurs deep
in the dermis, where collagen and elastin
fibers break down much more quickly
than they should, leading to deep
wrinkles and loose, sagging skin (solar
elastosis). Sun-damaged skin may have
the appearance of dry skin.
 When to seek medical advice
 Most cases of dry skin respond well to
self-care measures. See your doctor if:
 Your skin doesn't improve in spite of your
best efforts
 Dryness and itching interfere with
 You have open sores or infections from
 You have large areas of scaling or
Treatments and drugs
 In most cases, dry skin problems respond well
to self-care measures, such as using
moisturizers and avoiding long, hot showers
and baths. very dry and scaly skin, doctor
may recommend the use of an over-thecounter (nonprescription) cream that contains
lactic acid or lactic acid and urea.
 . Moisturizers provide a seal over skin to keep
water from escaping.
 If skin is extremely dry, apply an oil, such as
baby oil, while the skin is still moist.
 Oil has more staying power than moisturizers
do and prevents the evaporation of water from
the surface of the skin.
 Use warm water and limit bath time.
Hot water and long showers or baths
remove oils from your skin. Limit your
bath or shower time to about 15 minutes
or less, and use warm, rather than hot,
 Avoid harsh, drying soaps. If you have
dry skin, it's best to use cleansing
creams or gentle skin cleansers and bath
or shower gels with added moisturizers.
Choose mild soaps that have added oils
and fats,,
 . Avoid deodorant and antibacterial
detergents, which are especially harsh.
or dry.
 Choose fabrics that are kind to the skin.
Natural fibers such as cotton and silk allow skin
to breathe. But wool, although it certainly
qualifies as natural, can irritate even normal
influencing water
loss from the skin
 Temp.and humidity
 Contact with non aqueous solvents and
surfactants(removal of the NMF whch
has the ability to retain water
 Physical damage(burns
 Age decreases the capacity of the sc to
retain moisture
 Treatment
 The main objectives in treating a dry skin
are to raise the level of moisture in the
stratum corneum and to reestablish the
integrity of this layer
 They showen that water is the only
plasticizer for the corneum, but simply
adding water to the skin without corneum
to retain it, is not a useful approach
 Approach to treat dry skin.
 Treat physiological water loss by applying a
film of oil on to the skin, so decreasing the
evaporation of endogenous water and
rehydration follow.
 Using water containing emollientsO/w
emulsion, hydrate skin by their water content
of product either by:
 Evaporation and leave oil to act as occlusive
 Or absorb water and remaining oil acts as
 OTC drugs
 Urea and allantoin 10-30%,soften the keratin by
disrupting its structure i.s mild keratolytic and
 Glycerin 50 % in rose water: attract water from
atmosphere and serves as a reservoir to supply water
to the stratum corneum, also increase rate of
transepidermal water loss so accelerate the diffusion
of moisture from the dermal tissue
 to the surface and holds water in intimate contact with
the skin , also lubricate the skin.
 Anhydrous lanoline
 bees wax and spermaceti
 Petrolatum
 Iso propyl myristate
 Thank you