Chapter 27: Sec. 1 questions

Download Report

Transcript Chapter 27: Sec. 1 questions

1. What was the May 4th Movement? What was this, a result of?
Strikes, protests against Chinese territory going to Japan
2. Who was Chinag Kai-Shek? How did he provoke the Chinese
Civil War?
Leader of Communists in China.
1927 – turned against the Communists, killing thousands.
The Guomindang were fearful of the spread of communism
3. What was the Long March? Who led it?
(1934 – 35) 6,000 mile march to escape attack of the
Guomindang. Led by Mao Zedong
4. What happened in India after WWI when soldiers returned
home? What did this lead to?
800,000 soldiers angered because they had won no new
Increased unrest in India against British authority
5. What were the Rowlatt Acts? What were the results of the Acts?
Allowed Britain to deal aggressively with protest against
their leadership.
Amritsar Massacre: 1919 killing of 400 peaceful protesters
6. Who was Mohandas Gandhi? What 2 concepts were central to
his protests?
Lawyer turned leader of independence movement in India.
1. Ahimsa: nonviolence
2. Civil disobedience against unjust laws
Boycotted British made goods. Protests led to some self
rule in 1935. Independence came later
7. What did the Treaty of Sevres do?
Ottoman Empire forced to give up much of its Territory
8. What did Kemal Mustafa do?
WWI hero fought to stop Greek control of their territory.
Founded the Republic of Turkey; “Father of the Turks”
9. How did Kemal Ataturk affect Turkey? Why?
Wanted to turn it into a modern nation
Reduced influence of Islam in gov’t and private lives
10. How was modern Iran created?
1921: Reza Khan overthrew the Shah of Persia and
changed the name to Iran; increased investments in
and education
11. What is Zionism?
Desire by Jews to rebuild a national Jewish state (Israel)
12. How did Britain get control of Palestine? What was
Palestine Mandate gave Iraq to Britain after WWI
Transjordan: Jordan and Iraq
13. What has caused numerous problems in Palestine?
Both Arabs and Jews felt land rightly belonged to them.
Conflict between the two groups continues today
14. Why were African countries upset about the Treaty of
Africans serving in European armies increased nationalism
in many colonies. Desired independence, econ0mic help
15. What was the Pan-African Congress?
Meetings starting in 1919 supporting African independence.
It wouldn’t happen until WWII
Herbert Hoover took over for
Calvin Coolidge.
He predicted that poverty
would be “banished” from
America soon.
America was the leading
economic power and had
exploded during the 1920’s
in an era known as the
roaring twenties.
That success was reflected in
the stock market.
Stock Market Crash of 1929 – This was a symptom, not a cause of the
Depression. Between 1925 – 1929 securities tripled ($27 bil - $87 bil),
causing more people to invest.
Speculation – short term investing in the stock market for a quick profit
On Margin – buying a percentage of the stock and borrowing the rest
By 1929 there were over $7 billion in loans in the stock market. If the
market fell, people would have no way to repay these loans. In September,
the market started to waver, but in October, the market collapsed.
Black Tuesday: Oct. 29, 1929 – stock market collapse; lost all profits made
in the previous year
Causes of the Depression
1. Overproduction: the market was
saturated with many products
Ex: automobiles, vacuums, radios,
2. Under consumption: 1/3 of
consumers did not have enough
purchasing power; there was an uneven
distribution of wealth
3. Troubled industries: coal, textiles,
farming made very little money in the
4. Agriculture: dust bowl; farm prices
fell 55%, farming; debt didn’t.
5. Banks: over half of all banks failed
a. runs on banks out of fear
b. Bad investments; defaulted loans
c. low reserves; only about 4% of assets
6. Many goods were bought on credit
7. Hawley-Smoot Tariff: so high that it
stopped international trade
Responses to the Great Depression.
Hoover’s philosophy
1. It was just part of the business
2. Laissez Faire: the gov’t should
have a limited role in business
3. Construction of the Hoover Dam;
however, it was too little, too late.
Roosevelt’s philosophy: the gov’t
must take vigorous action
His program to end the Depression
was called the New Deal
1. Public works programs that
created jobs. Ex.: CCC
2. Gov’t money for unemployed.
Ex.: social security
3. Regulations to areas like the stock
market and banks. Ex.: SEC, FDIC
One of the supporters of FDR’s
program was John Maynard Keynes,
who believed that federal
governments could limit economic
downturns by spending money,
even if it meant going into debt.
The New Deal helped but did not
get the country out of the
The Worldwide Depression
What started in the US soon spread
around the world. Why?
Many Allied countries were in debt
to the US.
Germany had trouble paying their
In Japan, the slow down in trade
caused decline of the silk industry,
20% of their farm income.
After WWI, Japan was one of
the world’s strongest powers,
but struggled during the
interwar years
Economic problems in the
1. Peasants and rural workers
did not share in economic
2. Many industries
experienced slowdowns
3. Layoffs increased unrest,
strikes, and labor disputes.
4. A lack of raw materials
5. Increased tariffs around the
world hurt Japanese
Social changes
1. Shift from
agriculture to
2. Start of universal
3. Movement
caused a
questioning of
4. Resented by
Japanese and the
Military Influence
1. Military desired a unified
Japan devoted to the
emperor and national
2. Believed in racial
3. Emperor Hirohito was
heavily influenced by his
4. Angry at post war foreign
policy: limited navy hurt
Japanese expansion.
5. Began military influence
in education.
Took over the gov’t through
a series of threats and
assassinations; supported
by public
7. 1931: Invaded Manchuria
for raw materials
8. 1933: Withdrew from the
League of Nations;
increased size of the navy
9. 1936: Anti-Comintern Pact:
Alliance with Germany to
stop the spread of
communism. In 1937, Italy
joined (Axis power in
10. 1936: 1937: Second Sino –
Japanese War: Nanjing
Massacre. Up to 300,000
Chinese murdered by
Japanese troops.
11. 1940: Japan looks to
Southeast Asia for more
raw materials.
Factors contributing to the rise of dictators:
1. The Depression hurt economies all over
2. Treaty of Versailles angered Germany and Russia
3. Promises made by dictators to return to better days
Benito Mussolini: Italy: Il Duce: the
Fascist party: The good of the
nation before the individual
March on Rome, 1922: Threat to
the king, who asked Mussolini to
form a new government
Why was he able to take power?
Promises to return Italy to the
glory of the Roman Empire
His use of propaganda, and threats
Totalitarianism: the gov’t controls
all aspects of peoples lives
Military expansion: 1935: Invades
Ethiopia. What does the League
of Nations do?
Desired to avoid war at all costs
Hitler: Germany: The Furher
WWI: from Austria; served as
a soldier in WWI
2. 1919: Joined Nazi Party after
spying on them for the Weimar
Republic, the unpopular
German gov’t set up after
3. 1923: Beer Hall Revolt: attempt
by Nazis to gain control of gov’t;
4. Mein Kampf: outline of his
political views; blamed the Jews
and the Treaty of Versailles
5. Believes in: Nationalism,
Expansion, Racial Purification,
and military buildup
6. 1933: becomes Chancellor,
suspends all other political
Hitlers Anti – Semitism:
Hostility against the Jews
1. No marriages
between Germans
and Jews
2. 1935: Nuremberg
laws: Jews were made
second class citizens:
based on race, not
3. 1938: Kristallnacht:
night of broken glass.
Two days of violence
against Jews in
Germany and Austria
1914: Nicholas II rules Russia.
Conditions are bad. When WWI
starts in 1914 the Czar hopes it will
inspire patriotism, which it does.
However the war goes badly. Why?
1. A lack of factories
2. A weak transportation system
3. Poor military leadership
4. Russia’s army of 6 million was
poorly prepared and armed
5. The Czar takes command
of the troops in 1915.
He had no military training
6. The people hated his wife
Alexandra, who relied on the
advice of Rasputin in her
husbands absence. He was
eventually poisoned, shot, and
The February Revolution
In March of 1917, citizens of
Petrograd demonstrated due to
the lack of food and fuel.
With no support the czar was
forced to abdicate, ending the
The Duma (Russian Parliament)
set up a new gov’t led by
Alexander Kerensky, and said
that Russia would continue to
fight in WWI.
This angered many Russians.
Leading the opposition to the
government were the Bolsheviks,
led by Vladimir Lenin.
What were their beliefs? 1.
1. Supported the
proletariat, industrial 2.
2. Wanted to overthrow
capitalism and abolish
private property
3. Eventually they would
start a worldwide
The Bolsheviks took over
the gov’t after the October
Revolution(Nov. 1917).
Leon Trotsky negotiated an
end to WWI for Russia
2Executes the royal family,
ending the Romanov Dynasty
Civil War starts between the
Reds (communists) and
Whites (united in their
opposition to communism).
After three years the
Bolsheviks win.
In order to provide some relief
to suffering Russians, Lenin
introduced the New Economic
Policy, which allowed some
peasants to sell their food for a
In 1922 Russia changes its
name to the Soviet Union
In 1924 Lenin dies, and Josef
Stalin eventually becomes
leader of the USSR.
Main goal: promote agricultural
and industrial output
Five Year Plans: increase output in
oil, coal and steel through central
planning: the gov’t would make
decisions about production.
Formation of collectivization:
consolidation of smaller farms into
larger ones. Lenin had previously
given this land to peasants. When
they fought against Stalin’s plan
they were killed or sent to the
Gulag: a prison system in Siberia.
Great Purge: Because of his
paranoia, Stalin led a series of
purges to eliminate threats to his
power. Between 8 and 11 million
people were killed or imprisoned.
Targets were communist leaders,
military officers, teachers and
professors and ordinary citizens.
Nicholas II welcomed WWI because he
A. Hated the US and wanted to defeat them
B. Believed all ethnic groups should have the right to rule themselves
C. Was a brilliant military commander on the battlefield
D. Hoped a surge of patriotism would overcome the problems Russia was having
2. Bolshevik opponents came to be called
A. The Red Army B. Marxists C. The white army D. Soviets
3. Which best describes conditions in Russia on the eve of WWI?
A. Russian nobles wanted to overthrow the czar and claim Russia for themselves
B. Russia was a troubled country, with a bad economy and leader
C. Russia had a strong economy, and a recent revolution fixed the government
D. The provisional gov’t resisted entering the war
4. Bolsheviks planned that which of the following would lead a revolution?
A. Nobles B. The Whites C. Socialists D. The military
5. Which of the following resulted from the October revolution in Russia?
A. Russia became communist
C. A provisional gov’t was formed
B. The Soviet Union was formed D. Russia got out of WWI
6. Stalin wanted to transform the Soviet Union into
A. An agrarian society of small farmers
B. A modern industrial nation
C. A classless society run by working people
D. A peaceful, moral society based on service to the greater good
E. Stalin reorganized the small peasant farms into massive farms called _____.
8. Alexandra’s reliance on ____ for advice weakened any remaining support for
the Russian monarchy
9. ___ became the leader of the Soviet Union after Lenin’s death.
10. The Soviets organized a system of labor camps in Siberia called the ____
where thousands of people were sent.