Nationalism in the German States

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Transcript Nationalism in the German States

Nationalism in the German
What was Otto Von Bismarck
determined to do?
To build a strong, unified German state,
with Prussia at its head.
 What were German states like in the early
 German-speaking people lived in a
number of small and medium-sized states
as well as in Prussia and the Austrian
Hapsburg empire.
Whom invaded the German
states between 1806-1812?
Napoleon made important territorial
changes to the in German speaking
 He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire by
forcing the Emperor of Austria to agree to
a lesser title of king.
 He also organized a number of German
states into the Rhine Confederation.
What were some of the good things
Napoleon did for the German states?
He encouraged freeing the serfs, made
trade easier, and abolished laws against
the Jews.
 What did people who fought to free
German lands from French rule demand?
 A unified Germany.
What was the Congress of Vienna?
An Assembly, headed by Metternich
that reorganized Europe after the
Napoleonic Wars.
What was the plan for the German
Metternich believed that creating a
united German state would require
dismantling the governments of each of
the German states.
Instead the Congress created the
German confederation a weak alliance
headed by Austria.
What economic change was created by
Prussia and what did it accomplish?
It created an economic union of German states,
which dismantled tariff barriers between the
Germany remained politically fragmented.
In 1848 liberals meeting in the Frankfurt
Assembly offered the throne of a unified
German state to the Prussian ruler Fredrick
William IV.
Frederick William IV rejected a throne offered
by the people.
Otto Von Bismarck
A Prussian Junker (noble)
After being made Prime
Minister was named
chancellor (the highest
official of a monarch).
Used his policy of “blood
and iron” to unite the
German states under
Prussian rule.
Bismarck’s Realpolitik
A policy advocating the right of the
nation-state to pursue its advantage by
any means including war and the
repudiation of treaties.
 Bismarck’s first loyalty was not really to
Prussia but to the Hohenzollern
 He believed German Unification would
bring more power to the Hohenzollerns.
Bismarck unifies Germany
Bismarck builds a strong army against
the will of the liberal legislature.
 Bismarck led Prussia into three wars.
 Each war increased Prussia’s power
and paved the way for German unity.
 In 1864 Bismarck formed an alliance
with Austria.
 Prussia and Austria seized provinces
from Denmark and divided the spoils.
Austro-Prussian War
Bismarck invented an excuse to attack
Prussia defeated Austria in seven weeks
(Seven Weeks War).
Prussia then annexed several other north
German states.
Bismarck dissolved the Austrian-led German
Confederation and created a new
confederation dominated by Prussia.
Austria and four other German states
remained independent.
Franco Prussian War
By editing a note Bismarck made it appear
that William I had insulted the French.
Angered by what he believed was an insult
from William I, Napoleon III declared war on
Prussia defeated France and Napoleon III in
Prussia’s victory over France convinced
Southern German states to support
Delighted by the victory over France,
German princes asked William I to take the
title Kaiser of Germany.
In January 1871 Germans celebrated the
birth of the Second Reich, or empire.
Germans called it the Second Reich because
they believed it was the successor to the Holy
Roman Empire.
Bismarck creates a two house legislature.
Upper house appointed by the rulers of the
German states.
The Reichstag or lower house was elected by
universal male suffrage.
The Bundesrat (upper house) could veto any
action by the Reichstag.
Power remained in the hands of the Kaiser
and his chancellor.
Germany had replaced France as the
dominant power in Europe.
In the aftermath of unification Germany
emerged as the industrial giant of the
European continent.
Germany had an ample supply of iron and
coal; a disciplined and educated workforce,
all were key factors in industrialization.
German society prided itself on its sense of
responsibility and deference to authority.
A rapidly growing population provide a large
home market and a supply of industrial
How did universities play a role in
economic development?
Industrialists were the first to see the
value of applied science in developing
new products such as synthetic chemicals
and dyes.
 To support the applied science both the
industrialists and government supported
the research and development in
Bismarck’s foreign policy
 He
wanted to keep France
weak and isolated while
building strong links with
Austria and Russia.
What two groups did Bismarck hope
to crush as obstacles to loyalty to the
German state?
The Catholic Church & the Socialists
Bismarck launched the “battle for civilization”
against the Catholic Church.
He wanted Catholics to put loyalty to the state
above loyalty to the church.
Bismarck fought to gain more control over the
Catholic Church but it backfired and the
Catholics gained power in the Reichstag.
Bismarck sought to make peace with the
Bismarck feared the lack of the loyalty of
socialists to the German state.
 Bismarck tried to repress the socialists by
passing laws that dissolved their groups, shut
down their newspapers, and banned their
 Repression backfired as workers unified in
support of the socialist cause.
 Bismarck then changed course and worked to
win workers away from the socialists by passing
laws to protect workers.
 Germany became a pioneer in social and labor
 In spite of Bismarck’s reforms the labor party
continued to grow.
Kaiser William II
Succeeded his grandfather as Kaiser in 1888.
Shocked the world by asking Bismarck to
He truly believed his right to rule came from
Resisted efforts to introduce democratic
Did support social reforms such as welfare
and education.
Expanded the military and developed a navy.
Hoped to win an overseas empire to compete
with Britain and France.