Chapter 10 Becoming a World Power (1890-1915)

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Transcript Chapter 10 Becoming a World Power (1890-1915)

Chapter 10 Becoming a
World Power (1890-1915)
The growth of
• When stronger nations attempt to create
empires by dominating weaker nations—
economically, politically, culturally, or
militarily it is called imperialism.
• The late 1800s was the peak of European
imperialism, with European countries
dominating much of Africa and Asia.
Why Imperialism grew
• The growth of industry in Europe increased the need for
natural resources. Manufacturing countries also required
new markets.
• Nationalism resulted in competition between nations to
build the largest empire.
• Nationalism includes the belief in the superiority of one’s
culture which provides an incentive for expansion.
• A military incentive for imperialism was the need for distant
naval bases.
• Humanitarians and religiously motivated people believed
Western civilization had a duty to spread its blessings
including, its law, medicine, and Christian religion.
Causes of the New
• Nationalism
• Industrial Revolution
• Religious fervor
• Feelings of racial and
religious superiority.
Europe Leads the Way
• Improved transportation made it easier for Great
Britain, France, and Russia, to extend their imperial
grip over far-flung lands.
• Great Britain acquired the most imperial possessions.
• “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”
• After Germany unified in 1871, it seized colonies in
Africa and Asia.
• By 1890, the U.S. was eager to join the competition for
new territories.
Monroe Doctrine
• Since 1820 the main principle in U.S. foreign policy.
• Asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be
further colonized by European countries, and that the
U.S. would not interfere with existing European
colonies, nor in the internal concerns of European
• Asserted U.S. ascendancy in the Western Hemisphere.
• Overtime it would be broadened to support American
Expanding U.S.
• Manifest Destiny helped the U.S. justify its policies
toward Mexico.
• The annexation of Texas and the acquisition of
California and other southwestern lands were early
steps toward American empire.
• In 1867, under the direction of Secretary of State
William H. Seward the U.S. purchased Alaska.
• In 1853, an American fleet under the Commodore
Matthew Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay, forcing Japan to
start trading with the U.S.
• The U.S. annexed the Midway Islands in 1867 to set up
a naval refueling station.
Arguments for U.S. Expansion
(promoting economic growth)
• U.S. Industrial growth had resulted in an overproduction of
goods that could not all be consumed domestically.
• Overproduction of food and goods had led to economic
panics and depressions.
• The U.S. needed new markets for its goods.
• Some American leaders went a step further and invested
directly in the economies of other countries.
• Central American countries were called “Banana
Republics” because they were dominated by U.S. business.
Arguments for U.S. Expansion
(Protecting American Security)
• Lobbyists who favored a strong U.S.
navy pushed for expansion.
• Captain Alfred T. Mahan, in his 1890
book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon
History, 1660-1783, argued that the
nation’s economic future hinged on
gaining new markets abroad. In his
view the U.S. needed a powerful navy to
protect the markets.
Arguments for U.S. Expansion
(Preserving American Spirit)
• Expansionist like Fredrick Jackson Turner, Henry
Cabot Lodge, and Theodore Roosevelt, believed that
a quest for empire would restore the country’s pioneer
• Social Darwinism, also used to justify expansion, was
the concept that some cultures had the right to
dominate other cultures, because of their superiority.
• During the Age of Imperialism (19th and early 20th
centuries) many intellectuals believed that certain
racial groups were superior to others.
More on American
• The White man’s burden was the belief that white
men had the duty to introduce other people to the
benefits of Western society.
• In the process of expanding and becoming a world
power, the U.S. increasingly found itself in conflict
with other nations.
• President Cleveland’s Secretary of State, demanded in
1895 that Britain acknowledge the Monroe Doctrine
and submit a boundary dispute with Venezuela to
The Spanish American war
(The Cuban Rebellion)
• Cuba rebelled against Spain in 1895 after its economy
• Spanish General Valeriano Weyler instituted a policy
of “reconcentration” where he forced thousands of
Cubans into guarded camps.
• Over two years, disease and starvation (due to
reconcentration and fighting the Spanish) killed an
estimated 200,000 Cubans.
• Jose Marti an exiled Cuban journalist urged the U.S to
intervene in Cuba.
Road to the SpanishAmerican War
• Cuban guerrillas were able to
get U.S. business owners to put
pressure on the U.S.
government to act by destroying
American owned sugar
plantations and mills in Cuba.
Yellow Journalism
• Transformed newspapers with sensational and scandalous
news coverage.
• Was largely the result of competition for readers between
the New York World and the New York Morning Journal.
• William R. Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer used their
newspapers to increase public sympathy for Cuban rebels.
• Jingoism was the intense burst of national pride and the
desire for an aggressive foreign policy that resulted from
yellow journalism.
More steps to war
• President McKinley moved the U.S.S. Maine into
Havana’s harbor to protect U.S. citizens and property.
• The de Lome Letter, from the Spanish Ambassador to
Washington, which ridiculed President McKinley was
stolen and published in U.S. newspapers.
• The U.S.S. Maine exploded and sank in the Havana
Harbor killing 250 American Soldiers.
• On the other side of the world their was another
rebellion against Spanish power in the Philippines.
Still more steps to war
• While Theodore Roosevelt was only the assistant
secretary of the Navy he cabled naval commanders in
the Pacific to prepare for military action against Spain.
• McKinley sent a list of demands to Spain which
included, compensation for the Maine, an end to
reconcentration camps, a truce with Cuba, and Cuban
• Spain agreed to all of McKinley’s demands except
Cuban independence.
War Begins
• When Spain refused to meet all his demands McKinley
sent a war message to Congress.
• Congress recognized Cuban independence and
authorized force against Spain.
• To free Cuba from Spanish rule was a main goal of the
U.S. in the Spanish-American War.
• The first action of the war was Admiral George
Dewey’s surprise attack on Spanish ships, anchored in
Manila Bay in the Philippines, destroying Spain’s
entire Pacific fleet in just seven hours.
• Spain’s Atlantic fleet was bottled up by U.S. warships
in the harbor at Santiago.
The Rough Riders
• The First Volunteer Cavalry organized and recruited
by Theodore Roosevelt.
• Roosevelt resigned his position as Assistant Secretary
of the Navy to organize and lead the Rough Riders.
• They were a diverse group of volunteers that included
cowboys, miners, policemen, college athletes and even
some outlaws.
• When Roosevelt led the Rough Riders in a charge up
San Juan Hill it became the most famous incident of
the war.
Rough Riders Charge
up San Juan Hill
Rough Riders at the
top of San Juan Hill
End of the War
• The Spanish-American War came to an end when the
Spanish fleet made a desperate attempt to escape
Santiago harbor and the U.S. Navy sank every Spanish
• Future Secretary of State John Hay captured the public
mood when he wrote his friend Teddy Roosevelt that it
had been a “splendid little war.”
• The Treaty of Paris (one of many) was the treaty with
Spain after the Spanish American War.
Treaty of Paris (1898)
• The U.S gained the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico.
• The Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam were made
unincorporated U.S. territories.
• Unincorporated U.S. territories were acquired territories
not intended for statehood.
• Anti-imperialists opposed the Treaty of Paris because of
the territories which would be acquired.
• With the territories acquired from the Spanish-American
War the U.S. became an imperial power.
• Anti-imperialists believed that imperialism rejected the
American ideal of liberty.
Dilemma in the Philippines
• In addition to arguing that the Filipinos needed to be
civilized and Christianized, McKinley argued that if
the U.S. didn’t take over the Philippines, European
powers might seize the islands.
• The Filipino rebels who fought alongside the U.S.
troops against Spain, expected victory would bring
their independence.
• When the U.S. ignored a Filipino declaration of
independence, after the Spanish-American War,
tensions between U.S. soldiers and Filipino rebels
erupted into war.
More on the Philippines
• War between U.S. forces and
Filipino rebels lasted three years and
killed 16,000 Filipino soldiers and as
many as 200,000 Filipino civilians.
• The Philippines did not gain
complete independence until 1946.
The Fate of Cuba
• Supporters of Cuban independence had
attached an amendment, called the Teller
Amendment, to Congress’s 1898 war
resolution against Spain.
• The Teller Amendment promised the U.S.
would not annex Cuba.
• In order to protect U.S. business interests in
Cuba, after the war, McKinley installed a
military government that ruled for three years.
More on the fate of Cuba
• In 1900, the U.S. military government authorized
Cubans to draft their own constitution, but only agreed
to remove their troops if the Cubans would accept the
Platt Amendment.
• The Platt Amendment stipulated that the Cuban
government could not enter any foreign agreements,
must allow the U.S. to establish naval bases as needed
on the island, and must give the U.S. the right to
intervene whenever necessary.
Annexation of Hawaii
• With the support of U.S. Marines, the
pineapple planter, Sanford B. Dole removed
Queen Liliuokalani from power in Hawaii.
• Dole proclaimed Hawaii a republic and
requested that it be annexed by the U.S.
• Congress was swayed to annex Hawaii because
of arguments that the U.S. needed it for naval
stations to protect its world trade.
Open Door Policy in China
• China’s huge population and its vast markets became
increasingly important to American trade by the late 1800s.
• In the late 1800s Russia, Germany, Britain, France, and
Japan were all seeking “spheres of influence” in China.
• A sphere of influence was an area in China where a foreign
country had economic and political control.
• Secretary of State John Hay, developed the Open Door
Policy that aimed to combat European spheres of influence
in China, that threatened to squeeze American business
interests out of Chinese markets.
More on the Open Door Policy
• The Open Door Policy consisted of pressuring European powers to open key
ports, within their sphere of influence, in China to U.S. businessmen.
• The Open Door Policy was important to the U.S. because it gave the U.S.
access to millions of consumers in China.
• Many Chinese resented foreign influence of any kind.
• A secret society in China (called Boxers by the American press) started a
violent uprising in 1900, directed against foreigners and Chinese Christians.
• The Boxer Rebellion led to the massacre of 300 foreigners and Chinese
• Fearing the Boxer Rebellion would be used as an excuse by European powers
to seize more Chinese territory Secretary Hay sent a second series of Open
Door notes.
The panama Canal
• In 1879, a French company bought a 25-year concession
from Colombia to build a canal across Panama.
• A concession is a grant for a piece of land in exchange for a
promise to use the land for a specific purpose.
• After failing to build the canal the French company sold the
remaining rights to the U.S.
• The Spooner Act (1902) authorized the purchase of the
French assets in Panama (to build a canal) and required that
the U.S. work out a treaty with Colombia for a lease of the
More on The panama Canal
• Colombia refused to make a deal with the U.S. wanting to wait for
the French concession to expire so that it could sell the isthmus
for a higher price.
• Theodore Roosevelt secretly made it clear to the French Company
that if it organized a Panamanian revolution against Colombia,
the U.S. would not interfere.
• The U.S. was able to obtain the canal zone by encouraging a
Panamanian revolt against Colombia.
• In exchange for recognizing Panamanian independence and for
becoming Panama’s protector, Panama granted the U.S. a
permanent grant over a 10 mile-wide strip of land, for a Canal
Zone over which the U.S. would have complete sovereignty.
Reaction to the Canal
• Roosevelt’s opponents opposed his
actions in Panama because he
encouraged the Panamanian revolt.
• The U.S. actions to gain the Panama
Canal Zone created ill will toward
the U.S., among Latin Americans.
The Roosevelt Corollary
to the Monroe Doctrine
• In 1904 and 1905 Theodore Roosevelt issued messages to
congress that became known as the Roosevelt Corollary to
the Monroe Doctrine.
• Roosevelt asserted that although the U.S. had no
expansionist intentions, any “brutal wrongdoing” by a Latin
American nation, would justify U.S. intervention as global
police power.
• The central message of the Roosevelt Corollary, was that
the U.S. would use force to prevent intervention in the
affairs of neighboring countries.
• The Roosevelt Corollary established the U.S. as “an
international police power.”
Roosevelt as peacemaker
• Roosevelt feared the war between Japan and Russia
would close the door to U.S. trade with China.
• In 1905 President Theodore Roosevelt mediated a
peace agreement to the Russo-Japanese War, for
which he won the Nobel peace prize.
• Many of President Theodore Roosevelt’s policies
resulted in the expansion of presidential power.
Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
• President Taft wanted to maintain an open door to
Asia and preserve the stability in Latin America. As
for the rest, he preferred “substituting dollars for
• Taft’s “dollar diplomacy” attempted to maintain
orderly societies abroad through increased U.S.
investment in foreign economies.
• Taft’s “dollar diplomacy” was undermined in the
Caribbean and Central America by local revolutionary
movements opposed to American influence.
Resistance to U.S.
• Although the U.S. reached new
heights as an international
power under Roosevelt and Taft,
anti-colonialism abroad and
anti-imperialism at home
provided a growing check to
further expansion.
Wilson’s Missionary
• When President Woodrow Wilson refused to
recognize General Huerta in Mexico because he was
ruling without the consent of the people, it was
announcing an end to Taft’s “dollar diplomacy.”
• President’s Wilson’s belief that the U.S. had a mission
to spread democracy and capitalism to other nations in
the Western hemisphere and to protect them from
foreign threats is referred to by some historians as
“missionary diplomacy.”
Wilson and the Mexican
• American intervention in Mexico under President
Wilson led to even more anti-American feeling in
Latin America.
• A revolution in Mexico in 1911 forced Mexico’s long
time dictator, Porfirio Diaz, to resign.
• The new President Francisco Madero, was unable to
unite the deeply divided and impoverished country.
• In 1913 General Victoriano Huerta overthrew
Madero and had him killed.
More on Wilson and
• Most European countries recognized Huerta when he
promised to protect foreign investments.
• Wilson refused to do so because he believed Huerta was a
butcher ruling without the consent of the people.
• Using the excuse of the arrest of American Sailors, Wilson
had the American Navy occupy Veracruz.
• Over 100 Mexicans died resisting occupation.
• As a result of Wilson’s occupation of Veracruz General
Huerta resigned in favor of Venustiano Carranza.
Wilson & Mexico part III
• Infuriated by Wilson’s support of Carranza, Pancho
Villa terrorized Americans in Mexico and raided
border towns in the U.S.
• General John J. Pershing led 5,000 U.S. troops in a
failed attempt to capture Pancho Villa.
• Wilson’ “moral diplomacy” failed in Mexico as many
Americans and Mexicans lost their lives and U.S.
financial interests in Mexico lost ground.
• Expansionist behavior, the anti-imperialists asserted, was a
rejection of the nation’s foundation of “liberty for all.”
• The belief that “the Constitution must follow the flag,”
was the argument that people in territories controlled by the
U.S. should be entitled to the same rights as U.S. citizens.
• Other anti-imperialist saw racism at work in imperialism
(i.e. the white man’s burden).
• Some racists in the South were anti-imperialist because they
believed expansion would result in different races in the U.S.
More objections to
• Some anti-imperialist made the economic argument
that expansion was too expensive.
• Samuel Gompers raised the argument that workers
coming into the U.S., from annexed territories, would
lower wages for U.S. workers.
• Some U.S. industrialist were concerned that goods
produced cheaply, in annexed countries, would not
require customs duties and could hurt U.S. industry.
Imperialism viewed
from Abroad
• When Roosevelt sent the Great White fleet on
a cruise around the world it was intended to
demonstrate that the U.S. was a great naval
• People in foreign lands would turn against the
U.S. when it supported unpopular
• In other parts of the world the U.S. was both
welcomed and rejected.