Imperialism - mclaughlinhistory

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Transcript Imperialism - mclaughlinhistory

A. Imperialism – intentional control by an industrial
developed nation over a less developed region or
nation. This control is usually political, economic,
social, or cultural.
B. Old Imperialism (1500-1800)
1. Took place during the Age of
2. European countries, companies, and private
individuals established trade routes to obtain
resources, acquire land, and as an effect
subjugate indigenous populations.
3. Took place mainly in North America, South
America, and the Caribbean Region.
C. New Imperialism (1850 – 1952)
1. Carried out mainly by governments as official policy in Africa
and Asia
2. Similar to goals of Old Imperialism except there was also an
interest in creating markets and places worthy of financial
3. Aspects of Imperialism
a. Economic Reasons
i. Nations wanted to find and sustain new
markets indefinitely for the growing
number of
goods produced because of the Industrial Revolution.
ii. Sought out rich regions for their raw natural
materials, that would be turned into finished,
manufactured products.
iii. Rise of wealthy businessmen and companies
(They expected their governments to send soldiers to
protect their investments from other imperialistic
nations and from indigenous populations)
4. Political Reasons
a. Nations want to gain prestige and power
b. Germany and Italy want to catch up with long
time Imperial powers France, Great Britain, and the
c. Leaders engaged in jingoism - nationalism
marked by an aggressive foreign policy.
d. Wanted places for military bases and coal
e. Potential source of man-power for European
5 . Social Reasons
a) European nations thought their way of life was
superior (ethnocentrism) and
that it was their
obligation and right to spread their culture.
b) exemplified by Kipling in poem “White
Man’s Burden”
i.) Social Darwinism – biased idea of racial
superiority “survival of the fittest”
ii.) Thought it was natural for stronger
societies to conquer weak societies
c. Christian missionaries want to convert
indigenous populations to Christianity and
improve health and living conditions.
d. Some doctors, engineers, educators, and
scientists went for humanitarian purposes.
Forms of Imperialism
Colony – foreign power directly controls area
Protectorate – indigenous government kept as
long as long as it did what the foreign power
Puppet government
Sphere of Influence – foreign power rules
through exclusive trade agreements
Concession- foreign nation obtaining special
Mandate – region is placed under
contemporary control by an international
North Africa
French involvement
• Algeria
Starting in 1830’s it takes France over
10 years and 100,000 soldiers to
control Algeria
• Opposed by Abd al Qadir
• Tunisia – taken in 1881
• Morocco – sticking point, but taken
by 1905
• 1,000,000 French in North Africa
by 1905
Abd al Qadir
French in Algeria
North Africa
British Involvement
• Egypt – Suez Canal finished in
Egyptian government sells land to
England to pay for debt.
• People don’t like this and revolt against
Egyptian government
 England seizes Suez Canal
• Sudan – taken in 1889
French claim it too – compromise: British
will recognize French claim to Morocco and
keep Sudan
Suez Canal
Suez Canal
North Africa
Italian Involvement
• 1911 – takes Libya from Ottoman
Checked with England and France
 Not difficult
 Vindication after loss in Ethiopia
Sub-Saharan Africa
West Africa
• Europe trading since 1700’s
“Triangular Trade”
• Europeans push inward in 1870’s
Triangular Trade
Berlin Conference of 1884
European Powers break up Africa
Conference Resolution
Imperialization of Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Independent States
• Liberia
Founded in 1822 by James Monroe
• Freedmen could return to Africa
Protected by USA
• Ethiopia
Attacked by Italy
 King Menelik unites tribes and crushes
• No other country tries
King Menelik
South Africa
First settled by Dutch
• Afrikaners – Dutch settlers
Boers – Dutch farmers
Became English possession after
Napoleonic Wars
• Outlaw slavery – Boers are NOT
Afrikaners move inland – Orange Free
State and Transvaal
South Africa
South Africa
Boer War of 1899
• English defeat the Afrikaners
Ban slavery, but state that indigenous population can not
participate in government
1910 – Union of South Africa formed
• Unites all the territories
• Apartheid is put in place
African National Congress (ANC) starts in 1912
• Nelson Mandela leads movement against apartheid
Imprisoned for 26 years on Robben Island (1963-1990)
Released and becomes first indigenous president of South
Africa (1994-1999)
Latin America
Remember “Conquistadors”?
Mostly Economic Imperialism
• United Fruit Company
Started by Minor Keith
 Controls the rail-lines and therefore
the banana trade in several countries
• Use these resources to convince, with
USA governmental support, Latin
American governments
Minor Keith
Latin America
United Fruit Company
• called “El Pulpa”
monopolized the banana trade
 exploited workers
 aided small dictatorships known as
“banana republics.”
United Fruit Company
Latin America
Teddy Roosevelt
• Adds corollary to Monroe Doctrine
USA could intervene to stop “chronic
wrongdoing” through out the western
• Used to meddle in Latin American affairs
Roosevelt Corollary
Modern Imperialism
Does Imperialism exist today?
• Economic?
• Cultural?
• Colonialism?