failure of the leauge of nations - WCHS SS30-IB

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Transcript failure of the leauge of nations - WCHS SS30-IB

The failure of the League of Nations and
the causes of WWII
Topic B
Learning Guide 3
Q1. Chart and map the Manchurian Crisis.
•Japan – desire to develop a colonial empire (imperialism)
•Increased demands for natural resources
•Abundant natural resources in Manchuria made it a target
•Deliberate breach of the Covenant of the League of Nations
•Demonstrates the ineffectiveness of the League of
Nations and maintaining peace and security. “Toothless”
•Reinforced the concept of expansionism through force
(Europe and Japan).
•Encouraged European dictators to follow similar
expansion in Africa. (Mussolini & Abyssinia)
Q2.What did the Lytton commission decide
about the Manchurian incident?
•In Part sympathetic to the Japanese position
•Accepted they had a long standing investment that should
be protected.
•Named Japan as the aggressor in the overall incident
•Japan withdraws from the League of Nations
Q8. Chart and Map: Italy’s Invasion of Abyssinia.
•The death blow to the League of Nations
•Mussolini wanted war and glory.
•Abyssinia would make up for the lack of territory it
received in the Treaty of Versailles. Help to create an
Italian Empire
•Increase political support.
•Reaction to the Invasion was caution – diplomacy
•Gave time for Mussolini to send his army into Ethiopia
•League implements trade arms, rubber & metals
•Nations would not support sanctions as they were more
interested in protecting their own economy.
•Abyssinia secretly given to Italy by Britain & France.
Rise of Fascism
Why did the Weimar Republic Collapse?
1. Weaknesses of the new republic
• Associated with defeat & humiliation of Versailles Treaty.
• Tradition of admiration of army and lack of respect for
• Widespread feeling that politician had betrayed soldiers- “the
stab in the back”.
• New constitution had weaknesses – proportional
representation meant political instability because no one party
could gain a majority.
• Politicians and people lacked experience of democracy
• Often resorted to violent methods to achieve aims.
• Government failed to prevent political violence – seemed
weak and lost respect
2. Economic problems
Hyper inflation of 1923 affected working class and many of
middle class.
They blamed the government.
Economic recovery of mid- 1920’s was reliant on American
Dawes Plan 1924 potentially dangerous (economic dependence).
Wall Street Crash of 1929 led to world economic crisis.
Germany badly hit and unemployment rose sharply. People
looked to alternatives such as Nazi Party to solve their problems.
3. Growth of the Nazi Party
•Nazis promised prosperity & employment, & gave people someone
to blame for their problems – politicians, communists, Jews
•Appealed to nationalism – promised to rebuild a strong Germany.
•Hitler was a superb politician and speaker – appealed to emotions
rather than reason. Told people what they wanted to hear.
•Masterful use of propaganda to make their points and political
violence to disrupt opponents.
•Offered striking alternative to Weimar government –
•strength versus weakness
•decisiveness versus caution,
•order versus chaos
German Foreign Policy
1. Weimar foreign policy falls into two periods
2. Allied control of Germany until the early 20’s
3. Wilhelm and his successors trying to restore Germany to the
diplomatic community and to find agreements that would lead
to economic and territorial recovery
Policy of Fulfillment
To fulfill the terms laid down by Versailles & by doing so show
how impossible they were for Germany and thus bring about
mood in which Germany could more profitably ask for revision
of the treaty.
The chief architect of this policy was Gustav Stresemann
Fulfillment came with Locarno Pacts of 1925
Hitler’s Foreign Policy
Four chief aims underlay Hitler’s foreign policy
1. To extend Nazism into more areas of Germany
2. He planned to defy and revise the terms and the spirit of
3. He intended to unite all German-speaking peoples of central
Europe into a greater Reich.
4. He wanted to make conquests in the east to provide
1st four year plan 1933
Reduction of unemployment through public works programs
The Autobahn
Marriage allowances for women (to remove the from the labor
2nd 4 year plan 1936
The aim of this plan was autarky or economic self-sufficiency
It was hoped that autarky would make Germany totally
independent of world economic trends.
Some countries were boycotting Germany for her anti-Semitic
policies autarky would be essential in the case of war.
Q4. Explain how Hitler gained power in Germany.
•Appealing to the emotional side of people
•Offered decisive action
•Willingness of the people to allow leadership by military rather
than politicians
•Economic depression world wide
•People turned to leaders who promised stability
•Hitler promoted economic stability and nationalism,
industrial growth, rearmament, and an end to the reparation
•Inconsistency by previous chancellors in solving economic
•Prez. Hindenburg replaces Von Schleichen with Hitler.
Q5. How did the Enabling Act allow Hitler to
establish a single party dictatorship? How was Hitler
able to use democracy to create his dictatorship?
•Gave Hitler power to rule by decree (official order) without the
Reichstag's approval.
•Able to abolish all opposing parties
•Create a court system that would deal with dissidents
He became the supreme lawmaker
Regulated Private Enterprise
Told business people that he would not let the communists
take their businesses away
Individual rights are subordinated to the goals of the state
The fascist state is an object of worship
Q6. What was the significance of the “Night of
the Long Knives”?
•Massacre / blood purge of potential political rivals.
•Targeted SA leaders & supporters of a socialist views
Q7. What was the final step that gave Hitler absolute
•Merged the offices of the chancellor and the president into
•Eliminated any political competitors
•Eliminated any constitutional authority
Q9. Explain the significance of the Maginot Line to
French security.
•Stationary fortification to deter German aggression.
•These were built along the French Border between
Germany, France, Italy.
•Purpose was to provide time for the French army to
mobilize in the event of an attack.
•Germans walked around the line at Ardennes Forest,
Belgium and Netherlands
Meuse river in the Ardennes
Q10. Rhineland: Why was the reoccupation of the
Rhineland seen as a risk?
•Hitler's military leaders opposed the reoccupation.
•They worried it would precipitate war with France.
•Germany was not yet read to go to war.
Q11. Chart and Map the Spanish Civil War.
•War breaks out 1936
•Labor problems unemployment / starvation leads to civil
•Demands for better working conditions and redistribution of
•Demands for republican form of government crushed
•Military dictatorship (1923 – 1930)
•1931 General election Alfonso abdicates throne
•Left wing (republican) party in power promises reforms and
welfare legislation unable to make changes fast enough
•Nation divided:
cities want republic
rural loyal to Monarchy
1933 Right wing party undoes any reforms
1936 Left wing party attempt to break up rich estates
•Confrontation between left wing supporters and rich
•General Francisco Franco (nationalist) moves to restore
order (opposed the Socialist (Left).
The Dress Rehearsal of WWII
•Britain and France adopted a policy of non-intervention
•Germany & Italy support Franco
•Italy soldiers / Germany airplanes
•Russia supports left wing Republicans
•Russia gives support in an attempt to convince Britain &
France to get involved and re-establish the Triple Entente
•Hitler supported Franco in hopes of getting military support
•League of Nations didn’t intervene in the civil war
•Hitler learned that the Western democracies were not yet
ready to oppose the aggressive activities of Germany and
•Stalin came to the same conclusion; if Germany stated the
war, then Britain & France might follow a policy of nonintervention and leave USSR to fend for herself.
•Franco was an nationalist & opportunist dealing with both
•Spain gave some iron ore and safe haven for German uboats and did not join the war
•Spain didn’t stop British or Americans’ from using the straits
of Gibraltar
Q12. Define appeasement.
•Giving into demands in hopes of preserving peace
Q13. How did Hitler gain control of Austria?
•Union of Germany and Austria (Anschluss)
•Rome-Berlin axis created in 1936
•Mussolini would renege on its treaty with Austria
guaranteeing independence
•Hitler would provide Italy support who had invaded
Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
•Anschluss forbidden under the Treaty of Versailles
•Austrian Chancellor Kurt Von Schuschnigs creates a national
referendum (unification with Germany or independence)
•Germany sends forces to border in a pre-invasion position
•Schuschnig resigns
•Nazi Party assumes power
•German army invited in
•German Austrian union proclaimed
Q14. Chart and Map: Munich Agreement
•Chamberlain/ Britain, Daladier / France, Hitler / Germany
•Mussolini / Italy
•Chamberlain & Daladier concerned about German
expansion – not prepared for a war.
•Czechoslovakia was forced to give up the Sudetenland in
return for no more German Aggression
•Germany ignores pact sends troops into Czechoslovakia &
occupies the country without a shot
•Germany was allowed to move into the Sudetenland &
areas that had more than 50% German population
•Czechs would give up their western defenses & withdraw
Q15. Why did Britain and France allow Germany to
annex the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia?
•Major example of appeasement
•To prevent a potential war
•France was committed to supporting Czechs if attacked
•Britain not interested in fighting a European war.
Inscription in the flag:“ On towards the East!"
Soviet poster of 1930-s by Kurkryniksy
Q16. Give the terms and the significances of the Nazi
Soviet Pact.
Reasons for signing Nazi-Soviet Pact
•A belief by Russia that the democracies could not be trusted
•Disappointed that France and Great Britain did not get
involved in the Spanish Civil War
•Because of the Purge of military officers by Stalin France and
Great Britain hostile to communism. They did not feel Russia
to be dependable allies.
•Russia was not asked to participate in the Munich Conference
•Russia wanted assurance that its troops would have “free
Passage” across Poland and Rumania to Czechoslovakia.
•Stalin wants territories lost in 1918 Treaty of Versailles
•Stalin does not want a 2 front war (Germany and Japan)
•Germany invades Poland---Russia will not give aid to
•Neither would attack the other
•Neither would help a “belligerent” third power
•Neither would join a group armed at the other
•Hitler make sure the USSR would not join Britain and
France against Germany.
•Russo-German Pact – gave Hitler the “green light” for
•This policy is based on three assumptions:
•Pacifism – war was to be avoided at all costs.
•Treaty of Versailles was to harsh, therefore German
grievances were legitimate.
•Anti-communist – a strong Germany might be useful against
the Soviet dictatorship and communism
•This policy went against collective security and assured the
League of failure. It only served to postpone the war and
give both sides more time to prepare.
Q17. Why did Hitler invade Poland?
•Germany wants back Free Port City (Danzig) and the Polish
Corridor which had cut East Prussia off from the rest of
•Hitler want to re-unite the German people of East Prussia.