Transcript Bell Ringer

The Renaissance
Power of the Monarch
Unit # 4 – Lesson 4
Bell Ringer/Objective
◦ Bell Ringer: What keeps people honest?
◦ Objective: Analyze how sovereignty of monarch was established
Remember to be keeping up with your
Describe what is going on during this period…
Hint: Think about the who, what, where, when, why
and how of these topics
Monarchs of the 16th and 17th centuries
Absolutism = a system in which the ruler has total
power, a ruler whose power was not limited
Divine Right of Kings = idea that kings received their
power from God and were responsible only to God
• Philip was a devout Catholic and his goal was to make all his
territories and Europe Catholic
 Known as the “Most Catholic King”
• Philip had many problems with England, especially with its
queen, Elizabeth I
 He viewed her as a heretic queen since she was a Protestant,
she refused to marry him after her sister died, she had aided
the Dutch rebels, and she was allowing English ship captains
to raid Spanish ships
 These English “sea dogs” took much wealth away from Spain
 Philip decided to invade England and return the country to
• In 1588 the Spanish Armada sailed towards England
- It totaled 130 ships and 20,000 soldiers and also carried
the Inquisition
- Elizabeth rallied her troops to fight the Spanish
- Due to English using fire ships and a storm that sank many
ships, the Spanish Armada was destroyed and Philip failed
in his goal to invade England
• Philip spent a lot of money on warfare that bankrupted
Spain and caused it to gradually decline as a major power
Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, became
Queen of England in 1558
• During her reign, England became the leader of Protestant
nations and she laid the foundations for a world empire
• She used her marriageable status as a way to make alliances,
although Elizabeth never married – she refused to share or
limit her power
• Elizabeth worked to resolve religious conflicts
• In foreign affairs, Elizabeth played a balancing act with France
and Spain, supporting one and then the other to make sure
neither became too powerful
• Since she never married, her heir was her cousin, Mary Stuart,
the Queen of Scotland
• Mary was Catholic & plotted w/ Philip II to overthrow
• For this treason she was beheaded
• When Elizabeth died in 1603, Mary’s son James became the
new king of England
 James I of England and was also James the VI of Scotland
• Believed greatly in the divine right of kings, didn’t get along
with Parliament
• Had problems with English Calvinists called Puritans, who
demanded that the Church of England be reformed
 They felt it was still too Catholic with elaborate ceremonies
and the hierarchy
 James refused most of the reforms, but he did agree to the
publication of an English version of the Bible, called the King
James Bible
• Charles I became king on the death of his father
• He too believed in divine rights of kings and had problems with
• Thousands of Puritans went to America rather than live
under his religious policies
• Had numerous conflicts with Parliament which led to a civil war
English Civil War
• Conflict between Parliament and the king to determine the
power of each in governing England
◦ Civil War breaks out in 1642 between supporters of the king
(called Royalists) and supporters of Parliament (called
◦ Parliament wins, mainly due to the New Model Army and its
leader, Oliver Cromwell
◦ His army was made up of extreme Puritans who believed
they were doing battle for God
◦ In 1646 the king surrenders
• Cromwell then puts the Charles on trial for treason and in 1649
Charles I is publicly beheaded
 This horrified much of Europe – regicide
 He was the first European monarch to be formally tried and
executed by a court of law
Parliament abolished the monarchy and declared that
England was a commonwealth = a republican gov’t based on
the common good of all the people
• Cromwell soon dismisses Parliament and sets up a military
dictatorship, ruling ruthlessly until his death in 1658
• Many people were unhappy under Cromwell’s rule and after
his death, Parliament voted to restore the monarchy in 1660
• They invited Charles II, son of the slain monarch, to take
the throne
• Parliament got to keep much of the power it had gained
• The Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 – guaranteed those
accused of a crime the right to appear in court.
Glorious Revolution
◦ James II, brother of Charles II, is next to sit on the throne in
◦ Problem arises in that James has become a devout Catholic
who names many Catholics to positions of power
 People aren’t too worried because James has two adult
daughters who are Protestant who are next in line for the
 Then James marries a Catholic princess who gives birth to
a son – prospect of a Catholic dynasty
◦ A group of nobles invites James’ daughter Mary and her
husband, the Dutch leader William of Orange, to invade
England in 1689
◦ It is a “Glorious Revolution”, with almost no violence and
James II flees to France
 Both William and Mary accept the throne, along with a Bill of
Rights, which gave Parliament the right to make laws and levy
 The Bill of Rights was central to England’s growth as a
constitutional monarchy
 Act of Succession – only Protestants could be monarchs and
disinherited the Catholic branch of the Stuart line
English Political Thought
• Thomas Hobbes – wrote Leviathan
– Described humans as selfish and fearful and life in nature
as “nasty, brutish, and short”
– Stated that to save people from destroying each other,
people must form a state by agreeing to be governed by an
absolute ruler
• Need a powerful monarch to tell them how to live
When Why
Civil War
John Locke – wrote Two Treatises of Government in which he
argued against absolute rule of one person
◦ He believed that before the development of society and
politics people lived in a state of freedom and equality, not
violence and war
◦ Believed people were born with natural rights and that
people establish gov’ts to protect these rights (need a
constitution to protect your rights)
 If the govt does not, then the people have a right to overthrow
the govt and establish new govt
◦ Most absolute monarch, led France during a time of great
power, glory, and prosperity
◦ As a young boy, Louis had to flee Paris due to noble
rebellions called the Fronde
 Louis never again trusted the nobility
• At age 18 Louis declared he would run the govt himself
• “L’etat, c’est moi” = “I am the state”
• Chose the sun as his symbol, implying that France revolved
around him and he was known as the Sun King
• Louis made all the military, political, and economic decisions
• Louis built the enormous palace of Versailles 12 miles outside
of Paris and moved the govt there
• Required his nobles to either live there or visit regularly
• Nobles became more concerned with rituals and ceremonies
rather than fighting the monarchy
• Life at Versailles was expensive, nobles had less money to
raise armies
• Modernized and enlarged the army – had the largest in Europe
• Louis dies in 1715, leaving a 5 year old great-grandson as King
Louis XV
IVAN IV (Ivan the Terrible)
• First to claim the title czar (caesar) and got rid of foreign rule
• Numerous reforms during the “good period”:
 Created a new legal code & promoted military officers based
on experience and reduced the power of land-owning nobles
• Then his wife Anastasia died & Ivan becomes unstable &
 Sends away his closest advisors, takes away land from 1200
boyars, and destroys whole towns because he thought they
were plotting against him
Peter the Great
◦ Main goal was to transform Russia into a modern state
 Wanted to make Russia more like Western Europe
 Process of Westernization
◦ Reforms
 Built Russia’s first navy and modernized the army
 Brought the church under state control and started the
first Russian newspaper
 Built St. Petersburg as his new capital, was modeled after
western cities
Began as a religious dispute since the Peace of Augsburg did
not recognize Calvinism
Starts when new emperor Ferdinand tries to force Catholicism
on the Protestants in Prague
◦ In response they throw his two Catholic advisors out a
◦ They survive because they land in a dung/garbage heap –
known as the Defenestration of Prague
The two sides
◦ Catholic = Holy Roman Empire and Spain (Hapsburgs)
◦ Protestant = Denmark, Sweden, Protestant German princes,
and France (Richelieu wants to weaken the Hapsburgs)
◦ England does not join the war
The Peace of Westphalia ended the war in 1648, with France
emerging as the dominant nation in Europe
◦ Reinstated the Peace of Augsburg, now includes Calvinism
◦ The German princes become sovereign and independent –
HRE lost its power
The Thirty Years’ War was the most destructive war yet due to
the musket and increased use of guns
◦ The battles took place on German soil, causing much
 Millions of Germans died, either in battle or starved to
French Monarchy: Absolutism
Dictation – Jot down key ideas, words, or
phrases during read aloud
Throughout the 1500s and 1600s, absolutism, when kings or queens have complete control
over government and the lives of their subjects, was the most widespread political system in
use in Europe and parts of Asia.
Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants tore France apart in the late 1500s. In
the 1640s, under Louis XIV, who assumed absolute power with the help of Cardinal
Richelieu, France became the most powerful state in Europe. Louis, known as "The Sun
King," ruled for 72 years. His claim to power was furthered by Jacques Bousset, who
argued that Louis was god's representative here on earth
For the rest of his long reign, Louis XIV retained absolute power. He began a tradition of
absolute monarchy in France that would last for more than a century. Louis demanded that
he be in charge of all the military, political, and economic initiatives. The religion of his
subjects was also under his direct control. By drawing so much power to himself and the
central government, Louis deprived nobles of influence. They declined further in status when
Louis built an enormous palace at Versailles, a few miles outside of Paris, and required that
his nobles visit him there regularly. Nobles gained prestige by becoming servants in the
king’s Versailles court instead of fighting or building local influence far from Paris. In addition,
Louis urged nobles to develop expensive new habits of dressing and gambling. As the nobles
thus grew poorer, they had to depend on the Kings generosity to survive.
French Monarchy: Absolutism
What is absolutism?
2. What did Louis have power over?
3. What was his relationship with the nobles?
4. How did his giving nobles money increase Louis
French Monarchy: Absolutism
What is absolutism?
Chosen by god
What did Louis have power over?
King had absolute power over France
What was his relationship with the nobles?
Nobles borrowed money from the king
How did his giving nobles money
increase Louis power?
Nobles debt gave King the upper hand
Task: Make an illustration of
French Monarchy: Sovereignty
To have supreme and independent authority over a geographic area.
IN OTHER WORDS, supreme and independent power or authority in
government as possessed or claimed by a state or community.
IN OTHER WORDS, ruling party that is completely free of outside
Now you write your own definition…
Make a prediction…
During this time, the King of France had
absolute power.
 Write a short note to France.
◦ Predict what is going to happen to the government.
Start with “Dear France,”
English Monarchy: Parliament
Write key ideas, people, places, or events during read
The word 'parliament', derived from the French parlement, or Latin
parliamentum, meant, in essence, 'discussion'. English kings had always
discussed the affairs of the realm with their subjects, but under the Norman and
Angevin kings these meetings had been described by contemporaries as
'councils'. Nevertheless, the use of the term 'parliament' signaled that important
changes were happening. The council, made up of the king's closest advisors,
would always remain at the heart of parliament, but from the 1240s the assembly
began to acquire characteristics which made it clearly distinguishable from these
older gatherings.
The real driving force behind this development was parliament's role in granting
taxation to the king. Henry III was the first monarch to ask his subjects for
taxation on a regular basis, because the income from crown lands was no longer
sufficient on its own to fund the king's military expenditure. English monarchs like
Henry III were then forced to invite more nobles/elite into parliament to raise
more funds. Parliament therefore became synonymous with an enlarged gathering
of the kingdom's political elite.
In the reign of Edward I (1272-1307) parliament became a more consistent
part of political life, brought together as and when the king required it, which
English Monarchy: Parliament
Page 99
Why did King Henry ask for taxation from his
When did the parliament normally get together?
English Monarchy: Parliament
Why did King Henry ask for taxation from his subjects?
He need money for military expenditures
When did the parliament normally get together?
When Henry needed money
English Monarchy: Parliament
Using this
analyze the
of power in
English Monarchy: Parliament
Write key words, phrases, ideas during read aloud
The incessant warfare between England and Scotland, and then France, in the 14th century cemented the
place of a new group called the commons in parliament.This group was established as the crown
regularly looked to members of Parliament to provide the funds necessary for defense and
military campaigning.
At the start of Edward III's reign (1327-1377) the commons contained two distinct elements - the
'knights of the shire', who represented the counties, and the 'burgesses', who represented towns or cities.
The knights were usually members of the landed gentry while the burgesses mostly rich merchants or
Two representatives from each constituency were expected to attend each parliament. This meant that
74 knights could in theory be returned from 37 counties, and as many as 170 burgesses could be
returned from a variable number of boroughs.
By the mid-14th century, parliament was passing a wide range of new laws, which had been
suggested by members of Parliament. Typically these related to the kingdom's trade, commerce,
defense, law and order.
At this time there was a growing awareness of the distinctive qualities it lent to the English political
system. The great political writer of the 15th century, Sir John Fortescue, was able to muse on the
differences between the English and French monarchies, stating that whereas the king of France could
rule his people by such laws as he made himself and set upon them taxes without their assent, the king of
England by contrast could not rule his people 'by laws other than those the people had assented to'.
Parliamentary legislation was no longer enacted in the name of the king and council, but by 'authority of
parliament', and the assembly itself was no longer seen as the superior court of the king, but as the 'high
English Monarchy: Parliament
Complete a timeline of 5 critical events
during the rise of England’s parliament.
Make an assertion…
During this time, the King of
England still had most of the
power; however, we see that
shift throughout history.
Write a short note to Prince
William and Princess
◦ Their unborn child is the heir to
the British Crown
◦ Tell this child whether or not it
has any power in England.
Start with “Dear Baby,”
Homework: “I am the state”
After Mazarin’s death in 1661, Louis XIV broke with
tradition and astonished his court by declaring that
he would rule without a chief minister. He viewed
himself as the direct representative of God, endowed
with a divine right to wield the absolute power of
the monarchy. To illustrate his status, he chose the
sun as his emblem and cultivated the image of an
omniscient and infallible “Roi-Soleil” (“Sun King”)
around whom the entire realm orbited. While some
historians question the attribution, Louis is often
remembered for the bold and infamous statement
“L’État, c’est moi” (“I am the State”).
Homework Questions:
How does sovereignty and Louis quote “ I am the state” relate?
How does this passage illustrate absolutism?