Chapter 14 - Northern Highlands Regional HS

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Transcript Chapter 14 - Northern Highlands Regional HS

New World:
New Encounters, 1500 - 1800
Earlier Attempts at Exploration
Leif Erikson and
Vikings - Nova
Scotia and
 Crusades - Middle
East, “Holy Land”
 Cultural Exchange
via trade and
written works
Knights Templar
On the Brink of a New World:
Three G’s: Gold, Glory, God
 God and religious zeal
– Work of Francis Xavier, Jesuit
Missionary in East
– English Puritans in North America
Gold (and other “goods”)
– Gold and silver
– Spices and other luxury goods (access
to the East)
– Medieval fantasy writings from far away
– Economic advancement not allowed by
more rigid socio-economic structure
– New world allowed adventurous
individuals to achieve fame and status
On the Brink of a New World:
Growth of Centralized Monarchies
New Technology
– Better ships – Lateen Sail, Cannons
– Compass
– Astrolabe (latitude)
New Learning
– Printed Books
 The Travels of John Mandeville (14th
 The Polos travel literature
 Ptolemy’s Geography (1477) in Latin
– Portolani
– Better knowledge of wind patterns
– Renaissance humanism and the emphasis on
learning and curiosity
The Portuguese Empire
Portugal’s goals
– Gain ally vs. Muslims
– Trade opportunities
– Extend Christianity
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394 –
– Navigation School
– Exploration of west coast of Africa
– Slavery in Portugal
Ok! Ok! We can turn
back! Don’t kill me!
The Development of a Portuguese
Maritime Empire
– Bartholomeu Dias: rounds Cape of
Good Hope but…
– Vasco da Gama: reaches east coast of
Africa and India by rounding Cape of
Good Hope
The Portuguese Empire
– Alfonso d’Albuquerque (1462
– 1515)
 Fights Indian and Turkish forces
 Spice trade monopoly
 Torture and cruelty
– Commercial – Military bases
Reasons for Portuguese
– Guns
– Seamanship
I’ll beat you with this stick
if you step out of line!
Voyages of the New World
Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506)
– Reached the Bahamas (Oct. 12, 1492)
– Additional voyages (1493, 1498, and 1502)
Additional Discoveries
John Cabot – New England for Henry VII
English route through White Sea to Russia
Jacques Cartier – North America for France
Pedro Cabral – South America (by mistake!) for
– Amerigo Vespucci – Writes about voyages (“America”)
– Nun˜ez de Balboa – Sails across Isthmus of Panama
and into Pacific Ocean for Spain
– Ferdinand Magellan –circumnavigates the Earth – sort
of (death in Philippines) for Spain
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) divides New World
between Spain and Portugal
– Written by Pope Alexander VI!
– East of Good hope to Portuguese; west to Spanish
Magellan and Tordesillas
The Spanish Empire
Treaty of Tordesillas provokes Spanish
rush for lands
Conquistadores role
Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica
– The Maya – agrarian; declined 800
– The Aztecs – warriors; uncentralized
The Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire
– Hernan Cortés (1485 – 1547)
– Moctezuma (Montezuma)
– Initially welcomed – believed to be a
representative of the god Quetzalcoatl
– Spanish then turned against Moctezuma and
pillaged Tenochtitlan
– Aztecs revolted and chased Spanish out, but
then succumbed to smallpox while Spanish
– Aztec Empire overthrown – with great violence
The Spanish Empire
The Inca and the
– Pachakuti transformed Inca
empire into advanced state
– Inca buildings and roads
– Francisco Pizarro (c. 1475 –
– Smallpox claims many –
including emperor, triggering
civil war
– Atahualpa captured
– Incas overthrown (1535)
Guns, Germs
and Steel
Jared Diamond’s thesis:
Guns, Germs and Steel
The Spanish Empire: Administration
– Crown grants conquerors right to use
native labor and collect tribute
– In return, conquerors are to protect,
pay and supervise the religious needs of
the natives – did this happen?
Bartolome de las Casas exposed
the mistreatment of natives by
greedy conquistadores, leading
to a shift in governing policies in
the Spanish Empire
The Church
– Replaced encomienda system after its
abuses were exposed
– Served as regional civil and military
governors for king
– Viceroys assisted by advisory council
called audiencias
– Spanish crown’s authority over Church
– Mass conversion of natives
– Dominican, Franciscan and Jesuit
– Spanish Inquisition
European Discoveries and Possessions in the
Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
New Rivals on the World Stage
Spain and Portugal
had led the way in
the early stages of
the “Age of
By the 17th century,
the Dutch had also
become involved
Shortly thereafter,
the French and
English also joined
the mix
Eventually, Spanish
and Portuguese
dominance in the
New World faded
The impact of this
instigated war at
home and abroad,
and drastic changes
in the social and
economic structure.
European Presence in Africa
Initial interest was
gold and Portuguese
established outposts
on east and west
coasts of Africa for
this purpose
Dutch displaced their
presence on the west
– Dutch East India
Company sponsored
settlement in south
Africa on Cape of
Good Hope
– Settlement evolved
into farming
– Dutch settlers in S.
Africa called “Boers”
Africa: The Slave Trade
Slavery in Africa not new
Initially, slaves were brought to
Europe and the Middle East as
Plantation farming escalates
demand for slaves (sugar cane)
– Triangular Trade
– Up to 10,000,000 African slaves
taken to the Americas between the
Sixteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
– High death rate during transit
(Middle Passage)
– Prisoners of War
– Depopulation of African kingdoms
– Political effects of slave trade in
Africa (Benin)
– Power of local African leaders in the
– Criticism of Slavery (Enlightenment)
– Society of Friends = Quakers
The Slave Trade: Middle Passage
The journey aboard a typical slave ship took 100 days
or longer. Many Africans did not survive the horrible
conditions and contracted diseases or suffered from
malnutrition. Mortality rates were 10% or worse.
Despite the tremendous loss of life, slave owners did
not encourage slaves to have children who would
have greater immunities to New World diseases since
they felt it was not as costly to buy more as it was to
raise a child to working age.
The West in Southeast Asia
Portugal: did not have the means to
sustain their far-reaching empire
Spain: Seized Philippines as a trade base,
exchanging Asian silk for silver from
Netherlands (Dutch)
Seized Spice Islands from Portugal
Built fort in Jakarta for protection
DEI Company: Pepper plantations
Controlled most of SE Asia by end of
18th century
England: Only held one port in Sumatra
Mainland SE Asia generally resisted
European presence
– Europeans initially sought to pit
factions against one another
– Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, and
Vietnam ultimately unified and
– Only loose trade relations were
established between Euros and
these areas
Europeans in India
The Mughal Empire under Akbar
 Portugal: Pre-Akbar, limited presence
 Dutch: Competed with English and
Portuguese, but abandoned interests in
favor of Spice Islands
 France: Competed with England but did
not get funding from French government
(only had Pondicherry)
 England: Increasing presence
– Sir Robert Clive: fought French and
Indian rebellion in Bengal
 Freed British captives from “Black Hole
of Calcutta” prison
 Chief Rep. of British East India Company
 Battle of Plassey (1757) secured Calcutta
for Brits
– Seven Years’ War British booted French
out completely
– Thriving COTTON trade (raw cotton
refined in India, traded with SE Asia for
spices that were returned to England)
Ming Dynasty (1369 – 1644)
– At its height, greatly expanded
size of imperial China
– During this time, Portuguese
explorers landed off coast of
China (1514) with little fanfare
– Disease ravages population
(1630s), precipitating peasant
revolt led by Li Zicheng
– Last Ming emperor commits
suicide in 1644
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
– Invading dynasty from
Manchuria brings peace
– Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong
bring prosperity
– Dynasty’s decline coincided
with increasing European
– sought furs and skins
– formal trade relations developed
in 1689
– sought silk and tea
– given limited access to China
from island off Cantonese coast
– Lord Macartney demanded
greater access in 1793 but
Emperor Qianlong denied him
arrives in
China, but
comes back
empty handed.
Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543 – 1616)
– Centralizes leadership in Japan
– Ends years of civil warfare and turmoil
– Tokugawa Dynasty remained in power until
The Portuguese
– Land in Japan 1543 and open trade
– Francis Xavier: missionary activity
– Japan interested in tobacco, clocks,
eyeglasses, weapons and European military
– Missionaries interfere in Japanese politics
 Expelled from Japan
 Japanese Christians persecuted
Tokugawa Ieyasu takes
control of Japan in 1603 and
expells Christian missionaries,
seen as undermining the
shogun’s power.
– Portuguese traders expelled shortly thereafter
The Dutch
– Did not bring missionaries
– Only Europeans allowed to maintain limited
trade from Nagasaki for a few months a year
The Americas
The colony of Saint
Domingue became
the wealthiest colony
in the world by the
18th century. The
“pearl of the Antilles”
produced nearly half
the sugar and over
half the coffee
consumed in Europe
on the backs of
poorly treated slaves.
Toussaint L’Ouverture
led a successful slave
revolt in 1793.
Spain and Portugal decline
– Portugal in Brazil and Spain in
South America
– Both powers declined in 17th
– Faced competition from Dutch,
English and French in the
The West Indies
– British held Barbados, Jamaica
and Bermuda
– French held Saint-Domingue,
Martinique and Guadeloupe
– Cotton, tobacco, coffee and sugar
– “Sugar Factories” brought great
North America
Spain’s claim to the Americas ignored by others
The Dutch
– Henry Hudson’s discovery of the Hudson River in 1609
– New Netherlands: Dutch colonies stretched from Albany to
mouth of Hudson River
– Decline in 17th century after losing New Netherlands to
English (New York) and bankruptcy of Dutch West India Co.
The English
– Jamestown (1607)
– Massachusetts Bay Company: religious freedom and
economic opportunity provide the motivation
– Thirteen Colonies: prosperous and independent despite
mercantilist policies
The French
– Canada claimed after Cartier discovers St. Lawrence River
– Trade outposts for fur, leather, fish and timber, but no
– France neglected conquest efforts in favor of war at home
– Lost territory in 1713, and all NA holdings in 1763 to British
South America
Spain’s hold on South
America even began to slip
 France and England break
into South American trade
after 1713
The massive loss of territory for Spain in the
war of Spanish Succession (and the
subsequent British gains) all resulted because
this man, Charles II of Spain, failed to
reproduce. Perhaps this was a good thing…
– Treaty of Utrecht ends the
– End of War of Spanish
Succession puts a Bourbon on
throne of Spain
– Britain’s role on winning side
gives them asiento or privilege of
supplying slaves to South
Impact of European Expansion:
The Conquered
Devastating effects to local
populations in America and Africa
– In Americas, native populations
obliterated by disease and culture
squelched and replaced with Euro culture
– In Africa, especially on coasts, populations
Less impact in Asia
– A few religious converts
– Minimal lasting influence
– Asian rulers limited contact with
– SE Asian islands and India more affected
Chart depicting various racial
combinations in Latin America
Multiracial society in Latin America
– Mestizos and mulattoes
– Greater racial diversity, but hierarchies
Impact of European Expansion:
Ecology of The Conquered
Horses and cattle
to the Americas
– Argentine Beef?
– Plains Indians use
of horses?
American crops
brought to Africa
– Sugar cane and
wheat to South
– Sweet potatoes
and maize to Africa
from Americas
Impact of European Expansion:
Religion and The Conquered
Catholic missionaries much more active
than Protestant
 Franciscans, Jesuits and Dominicans
established missions to confine and
control natives
natives; Sor
Juana Ines
de la Cruz, a
nun in
Mexico and
champion of
– Native culture undermined
– Displaced by European culture
Missionaries in China
– Jesuits pointed to similarities between
Christianity and Confucian teachings in China
– Allowed ancestor worship to coexist with
Christianity until Pope condemned
– This reduced further conversion
Missionaries in Japan
– Missionaries destroyed local temples and
interfered with Japanese politics, wearing out
their welcome.
The Impact of European
Expansion: The Conquerors
Opportunities for women
– few white women came to colonies
– Women from poorer or disgraced
backgrounds had opportunities to marry
Economic effects
– Gold and Silver (Potosi mines in Peru)
– Columbian Exchange exchanged plants
and animals between Europe and New
 Horses, cattle and wheat from Europe
 Corn, potatoes, tomatoes, chocolate,
tobacco to Europe
Impact on European lifestyle
– Chocolate, Coffee and Tea as drinks
– Potato became the “super food” of Europe
The Impact of European
Expansion: The Conquerors
European rivalries
– Piracy common and state-sponsored!
– Determined alliances in international
New views of the world
– Gerardus Mercator (1512 – 1594)
and his map (Mercator Projection)
– Helped trigger more exploration
Psychological impact
– Relative ease of conquering
– Reinforces belief in superiority of
European civilization and values
Global Patterns of the European States:18th Century
Toward a World Economy
Economic Conditions in the Sixteenth Century
– “Price Revolution” – 2-3% inflation on most goods, including
– Wages did not reflect the increase
– Influx of gold/silver + population boom as causes?
The Growth of Commercial Capitalism
– Joint stock trading companies
– Profits in shipbuilding, metallurgy and mining
– New economic institutions
 Family banks replaced by banking institutions (Fuggers
 The Bank of Amsterdam
 Amsterdam Bourse (Exchange)
– 80% still worked in agriculture
– Little changed in lives of peasants, whose lives often worsened
Total volume of trade unchangeable
– European powers competed for
greatest share of it
– Economic activity = war through
peaceful means
Importance of bullion and favorable
balance of trade (export more than
you import)
 State intervention
Jean-Baptiste Colbert of
France, financial minister
to Louis XIV: Mercantilism
at its best!
– High tariffs on foreign goods
– Use colonies as source of raw materials
and as a market to sell manufactured
goods from mother country
Overseas Trade and Colonies:
Movement Toward Globalization
Transoceanic trade very valuable (luxury
 Intra European trade still dominated the
volume of trade for most of the time period
 By 1789, however, a shift in the balance of
trade saw huge increases in overseas trade and
much lower increases in intra-European trade
 These changing trade patterns interlocked
Europe, Africa, the East and the Americas
Discussion Questions
Why were the Portuguese so well positioned for
overseas exploration?
 How were the Spanish able to defeat the Aztecs?
 What social and economic forces drove the Slave
 How were the British able to achieve such a
dominant position in Asia?
 What impact did European colonization have on the
 What economic changes occurred in Europe as a
result of Mercantilism and Capitalism?
Web Links
The Slave Trade
European Voyages of Exploration
The Age of Exploration
Digital South Asia Library
Around the Indus in 90 Slides
Internet East Asian History Sourcebook
The East India Company
Virtual Jamestown