Transcript chapter4

Food and Religion
Chapter 4
Major Religions of the World
Originated in the
Middle East
Teach concept of
one God
Developed in India
Principle goal is
liberation of the
soul from the
bondage of the
Self-described religious affiliation in
the United States by percentage—
Vary widely
 Have been used for thousands of
years and reinvented over time
 Most have areas of questionable
 Religion based foods habits are the
most variable of the culturally based
food habits
Two Sects
◦ Ashkenazi
 Germany, N. France, E. Europe
 Hasidic Jews are Ashkenazi
 Most common in the US
◦ Sephardim
 Originally Spain
America has 3 groups
◦ Orthodox
◦ Conservative
◦ Reform
Judaism Dietary Laws: Kashrut
Food eaten reflects area of origin
 Set down in the Torah, explained in
the Talmud
 Kosher: fit
 Glatt kosher: strictest kosher
 For spiritual health, not physical health
1. Which animals are permitted for
food and which are not:
All mammals with a completely cloven foot
and chews the cud may be eaten and their
milk may be consumed
◦ Clean animals include cattle, deer, goats, oxen,
◦ Unclean include swine, rabbits, carnivorous
Clean birds must have a crop, gizzard, and
extra talon and their eggs may be consumed
◦ Ex: Chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys
◦ All birds of prey are unclean
1. Which animals are permitted
for food and which are not:
Fish: Everything with fins and scales
is clean
◦ Smoked salmon: lox
 Born with scales and then loses them
◦ Unclean include catfish, eels, rays,
sharks, and all shellfish
◦ Sturgeon and caviar is disputed
All reptiles, amphibians, and
invertebrates are also unclean
2. Method of slaughtering
Life must be taken by ritualistic
process called shehitah
 A shohet is trained and licensed to
perform the killing
◦ Slits jugular and trachea
◦ Blood is all drained
No natural death, road kill, or killed by
any other method allowed
3. Examination of the
slaughtered animal
No blemishes in the meat or organs
 No disease anywhere
 If so, rendered trefah
◦ Unfit for consumption
4. Parts of a permitted animal
that are forbidden
 Heleb
◦ Fat not intermingled with flesh
◦ A separate layer that may be encrusted
with skin or membrane
◦ Can easily be peeled off
◦ Only against four-footed animals
5. Preparation of the meat
Remove heleb, blood, blood vessels,
and sciatic nerve
Called koshering/kashering
Soak meat in water
Cover with kosher salt to draw out blood
Rinse out salt
Rinse repeatedly
Liver must be cut, rinsed several times
and broiled or grilled to grey-white color
6. The law of meat and milk
Meat: fleischig
Dairy: milchig
Cannot eat these together
◦ Eating meat: six hours before eating dairy
◦ Dairy products: one hour before meat
 Olives are dairy if prepared with lactic acid
 Rennet from calf must be used for cheeses
Separate sets of dishes, pots, utensils,
linens, sinks, etc. for meat and dairy
◦ Tevilah: ritual purification of metal or glass pots,
dishes and utensils
Pareve: Neutral - eggs, fruits, vegetables,
and grains
7. Products of forbidden animals
Products of unclean animals are
 Exception: Honey is fine, bees aren’t
◦ Assumed to not contain any insect parts
Where does gelatin come from?
 Processed pig or beef bones and/or
◦ It must be from a clean animal to be
8. Examination for insects and
Must be inspected carefully for insects
 Washed twice
 Examined before eaten
 Can get Kosher-produce
 Kosher products will have insignia or
the authority’s name on package
Examples of Kosher Food
Religious Holidays:
Sabbath: Day of rest
◦ Friday night till after nightfall Saturday
◦ All cooked meals prepared before Friday
 Challah, cholent, kugel
Rosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year
◦ All foods consumed are symbolic
◦ Round challah
 Life without end
 Uninterrupted year of health and happiness
◦ No sour or bitter foods
 Apples in honey
 Special sweets and delicacies
Religious Holidays
Yom Kippur: Day of Atonement
Holiest day of the year
◦ 10 days after Rosh Hashanah
◦ Usually in September or October
Complete fast day
◦ No food or water
◦ Medications only
Meal before fast is bland to prevent thirst
Meal to break fast is light
Who fasts?
EVERYONE except:
Boys under 13
Girls under 12
Persons who are very ill
Women in childbirth
Sunset to sunset
Religious Holidays
Sukkot: Feast of Tabernacles
◦ Festival of thanksgiving in fall
◦ Much dancing, singing, feasting
◦ Sukkah (hut) built and meals taken there
Hanukkah: the Festival of Lights
◦ Commemorates the recapture of the Temple
in Jerusalem
◦ 8 nights in December
◦ Candle lit each night
◦ Foods cooked in oil
 Latkes: potato pancakes
Religious Holidays
Purim: Joyous celebration in February or
◦ Feast in honor of deliverance by Queen Esther
Dress in disguise
 Lots of meat and alcohol
 Symbolic foods
Purim challah
Special fish dish
Seeds, beans, and cereals
Religious Holidays
Passover: 8 Day festival of spring &
◦ Celebrates the Jewish exodus from Egypt
All foods must be “Kosher for
 Forbidden foods
Wheat, barley, rye, oats
Anything leavened
Legumes, corn, millet, mustard
Malt liquor, beer
Passover: The Seder Meal
Festive meal
◦ Chicken soup
◦ Meat or chicken
Set with best silverware and china
Kosher wine
◦ The Seder book
Matzot (3 pieces of Matzah) covered
Seder Plate
The Seder Plate
Roasted shank bone
◦ Z’roah
◦ Paschal lamb
◦ Haroset
◦ Mortar that built
Roasted egg
◦ Beitzah
◦ Required offering
◦ Mourning for the loss
of the Temple in
Greens with salt
◦ Karpas
◦ Meager diet
◦ Tears shed
Bitter herbs
◦ Marror
◦ Bitter suffering
Apples, nuts,
cinnamon, wine
Special cup for Elijah
Religious Holidays
Shavout: Season of giving the Torah
 Two-day festival 7 weeks after second
day of the Passover.
 Traditional Ashkenazi foods
◦ Blintzes
◦ Kreplach
◦ Knishes
Fast Days
Several other than Yom Kippur
 Sunrise to sunset
 Fasts can be broken
 Women who are pregnant or nursing
are exempt
 Others to whom it may be hazardous
Nutritional Status
Jewish people are considered an
ethnic group
 Many are lactose intolerant
 Genetic predisposition to inflammatory
bowel disease (IBD)
Roman Catholicism
Largest number of adherents to one
Christian faith in US
 Immigrated from Germany, Poland,
Italy, Ireland, Mexico and the
 French Catholics in Maine and
 Many Filipinos and Vietnamese in the
US are Catholic
Roman Catholicism
Pre-1966 Dietary Laws
◦ Meatless Fridays
◦ Some still adhere
Feast Days
◦ Christmas & Easter
◦ Others
Holiday food depends on country or
Roman Catholicism
Corpus Christi
◦ Commemoration of the Last Supper
Fast Days
All the Fridays of Lent
Something given up for Lent
Fridays of Advent
Ember Days
 Days that begin each season
◦ Ash Wednesday
◦ Good Friday
One full meal at midday
◦ No meat
◦ Eggs and dairy ok
Older than 14
Younger than 60
Meatless Fridays
◦ Lent, Ash Wednesday and Good Friday
◦ Avoid all foods and liquids one hour before
receiving communion
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
As old as Roman Catholicism
 Byzantine as opposed to Latin
 Differences in interpretations of the
Bible, governing of the church
 14 self-governing churches worldwide
◦ Primarily Eastern Europe
US: Greek or Russian
Feast Days: Easter
Most important feast day
Meat Fare Sunday
◦ 3rd Sunday before Lent
Cheese Fare Sunday
◦ Sunday before Lent
Clean Monday
◦ Lenten fast begins
Broken after midnight service on Easter Sunday
Easter Eggs
Red in Greece
Ornate in Eastern
Symbolic of tomb of Christ
Red - mourning
Fast Days
Numerous Fast Days
 No food or drink before communion
 No meat or animal products
 No fish, but shellfish ok
 No olive oil, but olives ok
Martin Luther in 1517
95 Protests on the door at Wittenberg
Communion or The Lord’s Supper or
◦ Most significant food ordinance
◦ Use wine or grape juice
◦ Bread or wafer
Christmas and Easter as feast days
◦ Foods are determined by ethnicity
Fasting rare
Church of the Latter Day Saints
Believe God reveals himself and his
will through his apostles and prophets.
 Began in US in early 1800’s
 Founder Joseph Smith, Jr
 Utah
◦ 80% Mormon
Reorganized Church of the Latter Day
◦ Independence, MO
Mormon Laws of Health
No alcohol (strong drink)
 No tea or coffee (hot drink)
 No caffeine
 No tobacco
 Eat meat sparingly
 Diet based on grains (wheat)
 Fast one day per month
◦ Donate money saved to the poor
Have one year of food and clothing in
Seventh Day Adventists
Founded in 1863
◦ From the Millerites
◦ Ellen G Harmon White, leader
Belief in Christ’s advent or second
 Human body is the temple of the Holy
 Sabbath from sundown Friday to
sundown Saturday
Sickness is a violation of the
Laws of Health
Eat the right foods in moderation
◦ Overeating is discouraged
Get enough rest and exercise
 Diet in Eden did not include flesh foods
◦ Lacto-ovo vegetarianism widely practiced
◦ May eat meat but avoid pork and shellfish
No coffee, tea, alcohol, or tobacco
 Water before or after, never during a meal
 Avoid highly seasoned meals or condiments
 Don’t eat between meals
Battle Creek, Michigan
Home of the Adventist’s Sanitarium
 Dr. John Kellogg was the director
 Invented corn flakes as a substitute for
Loma Linda University Medical Center
 Adventist health facility
 Loma Linda Bakery
Five Pillars of Islam
◦ “There is no God but Allah”
◦ 5 times daily, facing Mecca
◦ To help the poor or support Islam in other
◦ A religious obligation
Pilgrimage to Mecca
◦ Once in a lifetime
Sects of Islam
Sunni, largest group
◦ Caliphate an elected to be occupied by a member of
the tribe of Mohammed
Shi’ia, second largest group
◦ Caliphate a Godgiven office for descendants of
◦ Shiites primarily in Iran, Iraq, Yemen, and India.
◦ Caliph is open to any believer whom the faithful
consider fit
◦ Eastern Arabia and North Africa.
◦ Ascetic mystics who seek a close union with God now
◦ 3% of Muslims, many outside mainstream Islam
Islam in the US
Most are Sunnis
 The original “Nation of Islam” in the
◦ Adherents called “Black Muslims”
◦ Split into two factions:
 1. World Community of Al-Islam in the west
 Accepted as a branch of Islam
 2. Nation of Islam
 Black faction under Louis Farrakhan
Islamic Dietary Laws
Eating is a matter of
 Survival
 Good health
 No overindulgence
◦ Eat 2/3 of capacity
Share food
 Never throw food away,
waste it or treat with
 Wash hands and mouth
before and after meals
 Right hand only for
Haram: unlawful or prohibited
All swine
 4-footed animals that catch their prey
with their mouths
 Birds of prey
 By-products of these animals
◦ Pork gelatin
◦ Enzymes used in cheese making
Any questionable by-product is
Haram: unlawful or prohibited
Improperly slaughtered animals
◦ Slaughter similar to that of Jewish laws
◦ Name of Allah said at the instant of
Fish and seafood are exempt
 Can eat meat slaughtered by Muslims,
Jews, or Christians
 Cannot eat meat where any name
other than God’s mentioned during
Haram: unlawful or prohibited
Blood and blood products
 Alcoholic beverages
◦ Fermented foods
Intoxicating drugs
◦ Unless medically necessary
Use of stimulants discouraged
◦ Coffee and tea
◦ No smoking
Halal: permitted or lawful
All food edible unless specifically
Mashbooh: food that is questionable
◦ Encouraged to avoid
May consume mashbooh or haram
◦ If food is taken by mistake
◦ When forced by others
◦ Fear of dying by hunger or disease
Some may avoid consuming land
animals without external ears, such as
snakes and lizards
Islamic Food and Nutrition
Council of America
Feast Days
Eid al-Fitr
◦ Celebrates the end of Ramadan
Eid al-Azha
◦ Meat is killed and distributed to the needy in the
family or in the community
◦ Fireworks mark this night when God determines
the actions of every person for the upcoming
Nau-Roz, New Year’s Day
◦ primarily celebrated by Iranians
Maulud n’Nabi
◦ birthday of Mohammad
Other Feast Days
 Marriages
 When a child begins reading the
Quranic alphabet
◦ Bismillah
Circumcision of boy
 Harvest
 Death
Fast Month: Ramadan
“The gates of Heaven are open, the gates of
Hell closed,
and the devil put in chains.”
No food
No drink
No smoking
No sex
Dawn to sunset
Fast broken with liquid and an odd number of
◦ Often with family and friends
Dates change each year – it is a full month
Who must fast?
All Muslims past puberty (15)
If exempt, must make up days before next
Individuals with a recoverable illness
People traveling
Women during pregnancy, lactation, or menstruation
Elders who are physically unable to fast
Insane people
Those engaged in hard labor
Other fast days encouraged
◦ Women must request permission from their husband
to voluntarily fast
Never fast excessively or on Fridays
Goals of Hinduism
Become one with the universal spirit
or Supreme Being
 Accomplished over many lifetimes
through reincarnation
 Karma - one’s present life is the result
of what one thought or did in one’s
past life
 Goal for all souls is liberation
Principles of Hinduism
◦ ceremonial goal and a moral ideal
◦ elaborate rules regarding food & drink
◦ Governs both flesh and mind
◦ Regulate appetites and cravings
◦ Highest aspect of self-control
◦ Ahimsa
Caste System
Idea was to construct an ideal society ranking
people by spiritual progress and culture not
wealth or power
 4 Castes
Brahmans (teachers/priests)
Kshatriyas (soldiers)
Vaisyas (merchants/farmers)
Sundras (laborers)
Dalits (untouchables)
◦ Outside social recognition
◦ Outlawed by government in 1950
◦ Still exists
3 Sects
According to view of the Supreme Being.
◦ Vaishnava (Vishnu)
◦ Saiva (Siva)
◦ Sakta (Sakti)
Different sects popular in different regions
Do not worship one God exclusively.
Hundreds of lesser deities
The International Society for Krishna
◦ Founded in 1966 by devotees of a sixteenthcentury Bengali ascetic
◦ Largest group in the US
Hindu Dietary Practices
Avoid foods believed to hamper
development of the body or mental
 Bad food habits prevent reaching
mental purity and communion
 Dietary restrictions and attitudes vary
 Laws of Manu
◦ “No sin is attached to eating flesh or
drinking wine … but abstinence from
these bears greater fruits”
Dietary Practices
Many are vegetarians
Cows are sacred and never consumed
Often avoid pork
No Crabs, snails, crocodiles
Numerous birds restricted
No fish with ugly form or porpoises
No Antelopes and camels
No Bats and boars
No Garlic, Turnips, Onions, Mushrooms, Red
 Avoid Alcohol
◦ Some will abstain
Avoid foods….
Prepared by certain groups of people
◦ Actors, artists, carpenters, cobblers, doctors,
eunuchs, innkeepers, musicians, prostitutes,
liars, spies, and thieves
That have been contaminated
◦ By a person sneezing
◦ Through contact with a human foot, clothing,
animals, or birds
◦ Milk from an animal that has recently given birth
◦ Water from the bottom of a boat
Eat fish or meat only after it has been
sanctified by the repetition of mantras offering
it to the gods
Eat too early
 Eat too late
 Eat too much
 May also avoid irritating or exciting
 Honey
 Taboos are by personal discretion
Purity and Pollution
Laws Lead to purity of mind and spirit
 Pollution avoided
 All products of living cow are pure and
 Ganges River Water and all other
waters pure
 Turmeric
 Sandalwood paste
 All body products are polluting
Feast Days
18 major festivals
◦ Wealthy share food with the poor
◦ Spring equinox
◦ Krishna’s triumph
◦ Victory of Prince Rama
◦ Darkest night of the year when souls return to
◦ The new year
Marriages, births and deaths
Fast Days
Fasting practices vary
Degree of orthodoxy
No food or
Abstaining from specific foods or meals
Numerous fast days
◦ Including the anniversary of the death of one’s
father and mother and Sundays
A lunar calendar so dates change
Basic Teaching of Buddha
Four Noble Truths
Cause of Suffering
Cessation of Suffering
Path that leads to the
cessation of suffering
Noble Eightfold Paths
◦ Right view, thought,
speech, action,
livelihood, effort,
mindfulness and
◦ Craving extinguished
and suffering ends
Five Precepts
Abstain from taking life
 Abstain from taking what is not given
 Abstain from all illegal sexual
 Abstain from lying
 Abstain from consumption of
intoxicants because they tend to cloud
the mind
Practices of Buddhism
◦ State of calm insight
◦ Achieved when one perfects Buddha’s teachings
Encourage a monastic lifestyle
 Monks
Follow a simple life
Own no property
Obtain food by begging
Are usually vegetarian
Eat only at noon
Two Schools of Doctrine
Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhism
India and Southeast Asia
Spiritual philosophy and system of ethics
No emphasis on deities
Goal is to achieve nirvana
Mahayana Buddhism
China, Japan, Korea, Tibet, and Mongolia.
Later form
Buddha is eternal and cosmic
Dharma – his truth
Doctrine, continued
Many Buddhas
◦ For some deities
◦ For others demons
Followers sometimes promised
paradise rather than nirvana
 In the US
◦ Tantric Buddhism
 From Tibet
◦ Zen Buddhism
Dietary Practices
Restrictions depend on sect and
 Many are lacto-ovo but some eat fish
 Others abstain only from beef
 If they did not personally kill the
animal it is ok
 Fast days are for monks
 Practices and Festivals vary from one
region to another
Cultural Controversy:
Meat Prohibitions
What is the rationale of meat taboos?