AP EURO Unit #1 * Renaissance and Reformation Lesson #2 * The

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Transcript AP EURO Unit #1 * Renaissance and Reformation Lesson #2 * The

Unit #6 – Early
(The World Wars)
Lesson #610
Second World War
Seven big issues prior to WWII
1. Anschluss – what was it, what did it show, why did it
matter, what came next?
2. Nuremberg Laws – what were they, what did they
show, why were they allowed?
3. Kristallnacht – what was it, why was it allowed, what
did it signify, what was next?
4. Spanish Civil War – what were the “sides,” what did it
have to do with Hitler and Stalin, why would it
5. Appeasement – what was it, what was Chamberlain’s
role, why was it supported, why did it fail?
6. Sudetenland – what was it, why did Hitler want it,
how did he get it, what came next?
7. Non-aggression pact – what was it, what did it show,
how was Poland included, what came next?
10 mistakes by Hitler (15m)
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK419Nl
Repudiation of Versailles
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jwpbp_JYzk
• Give an argument for giving in to Hitler.
• Give an argument against it.
• British Prime Minister Neville
Chamberlain was proud to appease Hitler
• “peace with honor”
• “peace for our time”
• Flew to Berlin 3x – got Hitler’s signature
• In return, Britain had to allow for
annexation of Czechoslovakia
• Czechs were not even a part of discussion
• Why were people so damn happy about
this agreement?!
German-Soviet pact
• Stalin and Hitler had agreed to support each
other in case of war
– NOT an alliance – they supremely mistrusted each
– Each had been developing secret plans to invade
the other
– But, they did agree that they’d share Poland if one
invaded Poland
• Why is this an important agreement
• What did it show about each super-power?
Invasion of Poland
• German invasion – Sept 1, 1939
• BLITZKRIEG – “lightening war”
• Britain and France responded declaring war
– Moved troops into Belgium and dug in
• Soviets moved to take their “share”
• Soviets then moved North to invade Finland
– Fins fought bravely 6 months
– Remained Neutral
– But, that puts Fins on German side
Other German Aggressive moves
Denmark – took just a few days to conquer
Netherlands – took two weeks
Belgium – 6 days
Took British and French by surprise
– Had prepared for a static war
– Blitzkrieg was fast moving, using modern
• Evacuation at Dunkirk
– 300,000 allied troops
• France invaded (Spring, 1940)
• Took 2 months to defeat
The German built Atlantic Wall
Battle of Britain
• Only Britain remained outside
German control
• Britain prepared for invasion
• Had created defensive weapon:
RADAR – could detect air attack
• Germany attacked June, 1940
• Ceaseless bombings for a full year
• Shifted to night time bombing meant
to terrorize Britain (THE BLITZ) Sept
1940-May 1941
• Never really focused on one target
Battle of Britain
• Churchill was the inspiration
– Churchill HATED tyranny
• Parliament granted PM Churchill
“emergency powers”
Selective service
Parliament morphed to one party
Mobilization of the economy
British production actually increased
Unemployment disappeared
• Families moved kids to country
• About 40,000 civilian deaths
• When the Germans invaded Russia in June 1942,
the population of Leningrad was about 2,500,000
• On September 12th, those in charge of the city
estimated that they had the following supplies:
flour for 35 days
cereals for 30 days
meat for 33 days
fats for 45 days
sugar for 60 days
The nearest rail head was about 100 miles east
soon to fall to the Germans.
By mid-September, Leningrad was cut-off
The siege was to last for 900 days.
Operation Barbarossa
• Planned on Spring offensive
• Had to bail out failed Italian invasion of Greece in
• Attacked too late to take Leningrad by winter
• Russians had been weakened by purges
• Russians far larger, but not as efficient
2,000 Russian planes destroyed in 2 days
14,300 of Russian 15,000 tanks destroyed by Nov.
2,500,000 Russians lost (half the full army)
Russians relocated most of industry to east of Urals
German attitude
Germans were brutal
Whole towns leveled
16,000,000 Russians would eventually die
Prisoners sent to Concentration camps
• Great fear of Stalin: ethnic minorities would see
Germans as liberators, not invaders
• Hitler took command – split army to take
Moscow and Leningrad at same time
• Russian winter defeated the Germans
Invasion of France
• Collaborators
De Gaulle
– Petain recognized the Church
– Vichy mirrored Hitler’s society
– Vichy – intense nationalism & prejudice
• Non-Collaborators
– Gen Charles de Gaulle
– Free France
– (broadcasted from London)
The Grand Alliance
• The “Big Three”
• Cooperation and collaboration
• Meetings
1. Moscow, 1943 (foreign ministers)
• Agreed to Unconditional Surrender, & for form a UN
2. Tehran, Iran (1943
3. Yalta (on Crimea), Feb 1945
4. Potsdam (near Berlin), July 1945
• Only Stalin remained
German tide turned
• Stalingrad (1942)
– Hitler determined to take – to cut off South
– Russian losses in this one long battle – more than all
American losses in war
– Hitler refused to allow a surrender – would lose
1,000,000 men
– Russians outnumbered, with huge reserves
– Russian winter offensive – produced good tanks
– German army forced to surrender
• Soft Underbelly (Italy) – 1943
– Allies took Italy – new Italian government switched
– Hitler invaded from North and rescued Mussolini
• Bombing of Germany
Mimicked terrorist “Blitz” of Britain
With similar results (~40,000 dead)
Americans by day
Brits by night
Allied invasion into France
• Russians had pushed since formation of Atlantic
Charter for respite
• Finally… D-Day invasion at Normandy (June
• France liberated by the Fall
• Push on to Berlin
• Why would that matter?
The Holocaust
• Organized and methodical
• 525,000 German Jews (less than 1%)
1. Jews forced out of their civil service jobs, university and law court
2. Nuremberg Laws (1933) - defined Jews, by religious affiliation of their
3. Between 1937 and 1939, new anti-Jewish regulations segregated Jews
4. Jews could not attend public schools; go to theaters, cinema, or vacation
5. Nazis seized Jewish properties or Jews to sell at bargain prices.
6. Kristallnacht (Nov 1938): Nazis organized pogrom
7. Laws passed between 1933 and 1935 - forced sterilization programs
8. Jews forced into Ghettos, then Camps. About half escaped.
9. Those who didn’t/couldn’t were sent to Eastern camps to be killed
10. EINSTAZGRUPPEN – mobile executioners – followed advancing army
Went into a new town, rounded Jews, forced them to dig graves, then shot
2,000,000 killed this way
• 6,000,000 European Jews would eventually die
• Himmler had planed another 30,000,000 Slavs to die
Peace Plans
• 60,000,000 dead
– 20,000,000 military
– 40,000,000 civilian
– Another 10,000,000 later died of disease /hunger
• 2/3 of them Russian
– Russians advanced into Germany – Raped and pillaged
Allies demanded Unconditional surrender
Hitler committed suicide May 1, 1945
Russia wanted to dismantle German industry
Russia wanted war reparations
Russia wanted forced labor zones
Churchill refused all three
• Role of women in industry
• Role of literature and arts on society
• Animosity –
Jewish population – who will support them?
German treatment of Russians
American hesitance opening up second front
• Russia invaded June 1942
• D-Day June 1944
• Symbolic behavior
– Atomic warfare – why was it used?
– American hesitancy pulling Germans to West – did we
want Germans to weaken Russia?
– Russia taking and holding land in Eastern Europe – did they
have a plan for a new war footing, post WWII?