Transcript File

TAV Chapter 21
America and WW II
Converting the Economy
• Cost-plus
• Car manufacturers
• Liberty Ships
– 244 to 41
Building an Army
• Peace-time draft was passed in Sept of 1940.
• 60,000 men enlisted in the first few months
following Pearl Harbor
• GI
• Segregation
• Double V Campaign
• WAC- Women’s Army Corps
• Tuskegee Airmen
– 332 Fighter Group
– 761ST Tank Battalion
• Japanese Americans fought in Germany
• American Indians served in the Pacific theater
Chapter 21 Section 2
• The Philippines were attacked a few hours
after the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor
• 2 days later Japanese troops landed troops
• Douglas MacArthur was ordered out of the
– “I shall return.”
• April 9, 1942 American and Filipino troops
surrendered to the Japanese
• 78,000 men were forced to march 65 miles
– Bataan Death March
– 10,000 died during the march
• A small force was able to hold out until May
1942 before surrendering to the Japanese
Doolittle Raid
• April 18, 1942, Jimmy Doolittle led a bombing
raid on Tokyo
– 16 B25’s flew out from the USS Hornet to attack
Two Attacks
• Instead of just going after New Guinea and
Australia Japan also went after Midway
• March 1942, Chester Nimitz sent the Yorktown
and Lexington to hit the Japanese in the Coral
Sea. They meet up in May.
• Lexington sank
• Yorktown badly damaged
– Saved New Guinea
Battle of Midway
• June 4, 1942, the Japanese attack on Midway
• While Japanese planes were refueling a
counterattack by the US caught the Japanese
off guard.
• 4 carriers were all sank and the remaining
Japanese ships retreated.
• This was the turning point in the Pacific just 6
months after Pearl Harbor
North Africa
• General Erwin Rommel
– Desert Fox
– Commander of the Afrika Korps
• German troops were pushed back by US and
British troops
• Kasserine Pass the US lost 7,000 troops to
German forces
• Eisenhower put Patton in charge of US troops
• May 13, 1943, German troops surrender
Chapter 21 Section 3
• Rosie the Riveter
• War effort
A. Phillip Randolph
• June 25, 1941, FDR issued Executive Order
– End discrimination in the defense industry
Bracero Program
• 200,000 Mexicans to help with harvesting
Japanese American Relocation
• Fear of sabotage caused FDR to sign an
executive order that moved people of
Japanese ancestry to 10 internment camps.
– Feb. 1942
• Korematsu v. US
– Constitutional
– Ex parte Endo
• Spring of 1945 loyal citizens were released
• 1988, Reagan granted $20,000.00 to survivors
Efforts to Win
• Rationing
– Gas
– Sugar
– Meat
– Clothes and shoes
• Victory Gardens
• Scrap Drives
• War Bonds
Chapter 21 Section 4
• After the fall of North Africa then the landing
on Sicily July 10, 1943.
• Sicily opened the door for King Victor
Emmanuel to arrest Mussolini on July 25th.
• German troops took over N. Italy to continue
fighting and return Mussolini to power.
Operation Overlord
• D-Day June 6, 1944
• Germans expected Calais to be the landing
site for the invasion.
• Instead Normandy was the landing site.
• US troops landed on Utah and Omaha
• Gen Omar Bradley landed at Omaha which
was strongly defended
Operation Overlord
• Additionally paratroopers and gliders were
dropped in during the early morning hours
before the landing.
• Hedge rows proved difficult for soldiers as
they encountered the enemy
• Many troops missed their landing zones
Island Hopping
• The plan was to push back the Japanese from
the various islands throughout the Pacific so
eventually the US could launch air attacks on
mainland Japan.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
• Largest naval battle in history
• Use of kamikaze attacks
Chapter 21 Section 5
Battle of the Bulge
Germany began the attack on Dec. 16, 1944
Try to cut off the Allied supply port at Antwerp
101st was completely surrounded
Gen. McAuliffe- “NUTS”
By January 8, 1945 the Germans began to
withdraw after losing 100,000 men
Eastern Front
• By Feb. 1945, the Soviets had pushed the
Germans back to within 35 miles of Berlin.
The End
• With Soviet troops closing in on Berlin and the
US coming closer from the west Hitler takes
his life on April 30, 1945.
• On May 7th Germany accepted Unconditional
• May 8th was declared V-E Day
Iwo Jima
• Needed as a location for bombers to refuel
• Feb. 19, 1945, 60,000 Marines landed on the
• 38 days and 6,800 lives later the island was
April 1, 1945 Marines invaded the island
350 miles from Japan
Secured June 22, 1945
12,000 casualties
Manhattan Project
• Leo Szilard first thought splitting an atom
would release large amounts of energy
• Drafted a letter to FDR signed by Einstein
• Gen Leslie R. Groves headed the Manhattan
• April 25, 1945, 50 countries sent delegates to
San Francisco to organize the UN
University of Chicago
• Szilard and Enrico Fermi built a nuclear reactor
-first controlled self-sustaining nuclear chain
reaction took place on Dec. 2, 1942
Los Alamos, New Mexico
• J. Robert Oppenheimer worked with Groves to
create the first atomic bomb
• July 16, 1945
• August 6, 1945
• B-29 bomber the Enola Gay dropped the Little
Boy on Hiroshima
• 80,000 to 120,000 people died instantly
• Paul Tibbets
August 9, 1945
• Soviet Union declared war on Japan
• Bockscar dropped Fat Man on Nagasaki killing
between 35,000 to 74,000 people
• Charles Sweeney
• Kokura
V-J Day
• August 15, 1945 Japan surrendered
Nuremberg Trials
• 22 Nazi leaders were prosecuted
• 12 sentenced to death