WWII Europe Thomsen with vocab

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Transcript WWII Europe Thomsen with vocab

World War II
The War to End All Wars (Round 2)
There are 2 main sites where
fighting is happening in WWII
1. Europe
1. Called the European Theater
2. Asia
1. Called the Pacific Theater
There are 2 main sides fighting
in the war:
 Axis Powers
– Germany, Italy, and Japan
 Allied Powers
– France, Britain, Soviet Union, US
A new way to learn vocabulary!
 On page 165 of your Interactive Notebook:
– Title: B17 Vocab
– Write the words and definitions
– We will keep adding to this throughout the
• For these notes you DO NOT have to define the
words on your own
 Step 1: Write the words and definitions
 Step 2: Listen and add more facts during
the notes.
 Step 3: You will be given vocab quizzes
throughout the unit!
Vocab (Part 1 of Basics 17R)
 Blitzkrieg: “Lightning War” tactic used by
the Germans in WWII (fast and surprise air
 Luftwaffe: German Air force
 Vichy: city in Central France where a
puppet government governed unoccupied
France (the area not controlled by
 Puppet Government: a government in
which a local leader is placed in charge,
yet directed by an outside government.
Now…to the notes!
 On page 167-168 of your IN
– Title: WWII notes: 1939-41
– Cornell style
• Use these prompts as questions
Hitler and the Nazi’s have fully
taken over Germany and have
set their sights on the rest of
Show PPT of LIFE photos
Nazis and Soviets at Peace????
 In August of 1939, Hitler and
Stalin sign a public
nonaggression pact promising
not to attack one another.
– Poland is divided between the two.
– Soviets get:
• Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and
– Germany gives USSR plans for
naval vessels, subs, airplane
– USSR will supply Germany with
many raw goods
 September 1st 1939– Germany lead a surprise attack on
 They used Blitzkrieg (lightning
– Using concentrated tanks and dive-
bombers to break a hole in the
enemy line and followed quickly
mobile infantry.
 Hitler used over 1.5 million men
– Luftwaffe (German Air Force)
bombed major cities, rail lines and
communication lines
 September 3
– France and Great Britain
declare war on Germany
 Great Britain drops
– millions of leaflets of
propaganda over Germany
 September 17th
– Stalin orders Soviet troops to
occupy the eastern half of
– Poland fell in three weeks
The Phony War
 Seven months after France and Great Britain had
declared war on Germany the two sides had not
fought each other.
– In WWI the defender had the advantage and many
believed it would be the same in WWII.
 The Allies had mobilized their armies.
 The French waited for Germans behind the
Maginot Line (a 87-mile long line of forts,
concrete walls and underground barracks).
End of the Phony War
April 1940
– Germany attacks neutral Denmark and
– Denmark falls in hours, Norway will
last months
Why did Hitler invade these
– To gain naval bases/airfields to
attack UK in the future
May 1940
– Germans invade Holland, Belgium
and Luxembourg
Surprise, Surprise…
 Germans attack
through Central
France through the
thick Ardennes Forest.
– Experts believed that it
was impossible to drive
tanks through it.
 British and French
Armies are divided.
– British are encircled at
port of Dunkirk
 Allied soldiers escaped aboard
anything that could float (yachts,
lifeboats, motorboats, fishing ships).
– 338,000 were rescued
 All large equipment was left behind
 France is alone against Germany
France Falls
 On June 10, Mussolini declares war on
France fearing that Hitler would take the
entire nation for himself.
 June 14, Paris is captured by Germany
 On June 22, France surrenders
– Germany takes direct control of the northern
two-thirds of France
1. Hitler creates a puppet
gov. in France:
-The Vichy French who
controlled southern
-“Free French” based in
Results of
the Fall of
2. Britain is the only
nation still fighting
3. The Axis powers are
masters of the
European mainland
The Battle of Britain
 After fall of France, Britain stands alone.
 Germany must control air in order to
successfully invade England.
 Hitler launched air campaign in July 1940
– Lasts until October
 Despite 3000 to 1200 advantage in aircraft,
the Luftwaffe is unable to defeat the RAF.
Why did Germany lose?
 Radar provides
 Allows British to
focus their fighter
effort where the
Germans pose the
greatest threat.
Vocab Basics 17R Part 2
1. Rosie the Riveter – symbol of
women who built ships, planes, and
produced amunitions (weapons) on
the home front.
2. Stalingrad – “turning point” in
European Theater of WWII. USSR
defeated the Nazis.
The War in Europe starts to
come to an end…
Early US Involvement in Europe
 The US is supposed
to be neutral
– Lend-Lease Act: The
US “Lends” UK (and
eventually the Soviet
Union) ships, planes,
and other war
material for
“Leasing” British
bases in the
Why is this a good deal for the
Why is this a good deal for the
Side Effects of the Lend-Lease Act
 Hitler orders his U-Boats to target US
 By Sept. 4th Roosevelt orders US Navy to
shoot German submarines on sight
 US is now in an undeclared war with
Germany and the Soviet Union
 Hitler signs NonAggression Pact
– violates it when
he launches
“Barbarossa” in
June 22nd 1941.
If Russia is so much bigger, why
is Germany a threat?
 Germany had a strong army
 Stalin had killed many military leaders in
the Great Purge
The Three Prongs in the Soviet Union
 Three main attack groups
– North towards Leningrad
(St. Petersburg)
– Center towards Moscow
– South towards the oil
rich Caucasus Mountains
 Germans, meet initial
success, but were slowed
by Stalin’s scorched earth
North Group
By Sept. 1941 Leningrad (pop. 2.5
million) was surrounded
By the end of the siege (900 days)
– one million were dead
– no animals were alive in the city
(therefore, no food)
• even rats and crows!
Center Group
 Germans reach suburbs
of Moscow on
December 2 (1941), but
coldest winter in decades
(-60 degrees)
 Fuel and oil froze, tanks
and trucks useless
 Soviets launch
counteroffensive headed
by 100 Siberian divisions
 Germans are pushed back
125 miles.
South Group: Stalingrad
Why did Hitler want Stalingrad?
– Gateway to the oil rich south.
South Group: Stalingrad
 July 1942-February 1943
 Costliest battle of WWII
 Stalin’s troops ruthlessly defend the city
– Hitler loses
 The Battle of Stalingrad stops the eastern
advance of Hitler’s troops
– the major turning point in the WWII leading to
the ultimate defeat of Hitler
 Losses:
– City was destroyed
– 2 million people died
• more than 800,000 on the German side
• 1.1 million on the Soviet side
How did the Soviets win??
They used the Scorched Earth
The COLD Russian winter
slowed down the Germans
– What other event was this like??
Soviets Advance
 The tide turns and
the Soviets go on
the offensive.
 By Summer of
1944, freed the
USSR from the
Germans and had
entered Poland.
Soviet Union in secured…
 What about North Africa?
– While Germany and the Soviets are at war,
North Africa and Italy are at war
• Mussolini is still trying to re-create the old Roman
For the Glory of Rome!
 Italy’s Goal: to cut off Britain’s life line to
India (Suez Canal) and take the oil rich
Middle East.
 Plan: Italian Army will strike east from
Italian Libya and capture Egypt.
For the Glory of Rome: North Africa
British Offensive
 First Italy wins but the British
counter-attack and push the
Italians back.
 December 1940-February 1941
– British victories
– Italians retreat
– 130, 000 Italians captured
 Germany is worried about
British invasion from the south.
Basics 17 Vocab, Part 3
1. General Erwin Rommel – “Desert
Fox” German commander who
conquered most of North Africa.
2. Dwight Eisenhower – commander
of British and American forces in
North Africa who defeated General
Erwin Rommel
Operation Torch in North Africa
North Africa
 Stalin asked FDR and Churchill for help by
opening another front in Europe.
 Churchill thought it was too risky & pressures
FDR to launch an attack into N. Africa. Stalin
feels betrayed.
 Allied attack on N. Africa called Operation Torch
– Begins late 1942 & led by US Lt. General Dwight D.
– Huge success. Allies push Axis out of North Africa.
 Allies win in North Africa
– July 1943
– Target Italy
 Sicily is taken
– Italian king arrests
– surrenders to the Allies
 Mussolini is rescued by
– Leads puppet government in
northern Italy.
Mussolini’s Demise
 Allies march into Milan
– Mussolini tries to flee the country disguised as a
German soldier
 Italian partisans stop the convoy & demand all
Italians be turned over.
– Mussolini & his mistress were handed over
 April 28,1945 both were shot & taken to Milan
for public display
– Hung upside down
Pause and work on timeline
 Color and pictures!
The score…
 North Africa once again controlled by the Allies
 USSR once again controlled by the Allies
 Italy once again controlled by the Allies
 Britain STILL controlled by the Allies
– Let’s keep going!
Basics 17 Vocab, Part 4
1. D-Day – June 6, 1944, Allied
invasion of France at Normandy
2. V-E Day – May 8, 1945,
Germany surrenders
D-Day Invasion
 Operation Overlord
 May 1944 the long awaited invasion of
France was ready
 Led by General Dwight D. Eisenhower
(supreme commander of the all Allied
Forces in Europe)
D-Day Invasion
 Thousands of planes, ships, tanks
and landing crafts
 3.5 million troops
 June 6th 1944
– five beaches
– 150,000 US, Canadian and UK
– 23,000 parachuted
Normandy…D-Day Invasion
 Losses…Allies 12,000. Germans 9,000.
 By late summer 1944, Paris is liberated.
 All the Allies move towards Germany.
Watch “Saving Private Ryan”
 Honors: Minute 5-25
 Regular: Minute 5-15
Battle of the Bulge
 Begins on December 16, 1944 in the Ardennes Forest
(N. France/Belgium)
 Germany attacks with the hopes of dividing the Allies to
force a peace treaty favorable to the Axis
– Remember: the Germans used this strategy once before
 Germany concentrated its fighting in the center of the
Allied line due to its apparent weakness…causing a
“bulge” effect which gave the battle its name
Battle of the Bulge
 The first three days saw
the most causalities for
the US
 Eventually the attack fails
due to lack of troops and
 January 1945, Hitler
removes his troops from
the Ardennes
Hitler’s Downfall
 Allies move to Berlin
– Hitler refuses to surrender
 Hitler relocates to the bunker under the Chancellery
in Berlin on winter of 1945.
 As the Soviets enter Berlin in April 1945
– Hitler marries Eva Braun
– two days later commits suicide
– his body is burned afterwards
 The German army surrenders May 7th, 1945. War
in Europe is over!
Where was Japan
during all of this?
Basics 17 Vocab, Part 5
1. Concentration Camps – detention centers, prisons,
for civilians considered enemies of the state.
2. Holocaust – Nazi massacre of approx. 6 million
Jews, Gypsies, Poles, Homosexuals, and political
3. Genocide – the murder of a group of people based on
their race.
4. Nuremburg Trials – European trials for Nazis who
committed “crimes against humanity”