What happened nextx

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Transcript What happened nextx

What happened next?
Answers to frequently asked questions
How did the arrest really happen?
 The movie version is the most accurate.
 The last diary entry was August 1, 1944. The play
version made up the August 4th entry.
 The arresting officer, Karl Silberbauer, was told
by his commanding officer that he had received a
tip and to go and investigate. His superior officer,
Julius Dettmann, who had originally taken the call,
committed suicide immediately after the war.
 We have no idea who called Julius Dettmann.
 Silberbauer spent two years in jail and then was
used by the West German intelligence service to
infiltrate neo-Nazi and Pro-Soviet organizations
Who turned the families in?
 Possible suspects:
 Willem Van Maaren (creepy guy) - Two
police investigations - one immediately
after the war and another in the 1960s turned up nothing and Van Maaren died
in 1971 professing his innocence.
 Anton Ahlers - business associate of
Otto's and a committed Nazi.
 Lena Hartog – the cleaning lady in the
What happened to the helpers?
 Victor Kugler (June 5,
1900– December 16,
1981, in Toronto)
 Kugler was arrested and
interrogated at the
Gestapo Headquarters,
then transferred the same
day to a prison for Jews
and 'political prisoners'
awaiting deportation. He
was taken to several
concentration camps.
In April 1945 there was a bombing
raid during the forced march and
Kugler took advantage of the
confusion to escape. He was hidden
by a farmer for a few days, borrowed
a bicycle and made his way back to
home. He hid there in his own house
until the liberation of the Netherlands
on 5 May 1945.
What happened to the helpers?
 Johannes Kleiman
 (August 17 1896 - January 28
1959 in Amsterdam)
 Kleiman was arrested and interrogated
at the Gestapo Headquarters, then
transferred the same day to a prison
for Jews and 'political prisoners'
awaiting deportation.
 He was imprisoned in the Amersfoort
labour camp before he was released
by special dispensation of the Red
Cross, due to ill-health. In all, he was a
prisoner of the Nazis for about six
What happened to the helpers?
 Jan Gies
 October 18, 1905 – January
26, 1993
 Jan was involved in the
underground Dutch
 Took charge of the business
after the others were arrested
After the war,
Miep and Jan had
a son, Paul, who
was born in 1950.
 Miep Gies
 February15, 1909 –January
11, 2010
 Miep was not arrested out of
the sympathy of the officer.
 Miep tried to bribe the officer
to get information on the
What happened to Mushi,
Peter's cat?
 According to Miep:
 “After they were arrested, the cat
was still there. It did not run away.
But the cat did not feel at home
anymore. It missed Peter. But one
day the office cleaner asked if she
could take the cat. She took Mushi
and gave the cat a new home.”
 We do not know what happened with
Anne’s cat.
When the Nazis found Anne and her
family were they sent directly to a "Death
 No. They spent 4 days locked in a
holding cell in Amsterdam, and on
August 8, 1944 they were
transported to the Westerbork Camp.
 They stayed there for the whole
month of August in the "punishable
barracks." They were considered
"punishable prisoners" since they had
not given themselves up when the
call-up notices were sent, but had
been captured in hiding.
Where did they go after
 On September 3, 1944, the eight prisoners joined 1,011
others on the last train bound for the Auschwitz death
camp in Poland.
 Hermann van Pels (Mr. Van Daan) is gassed
on September 6, 1944, a few days after arrival.
 Otto, Peter, and Mr. Dussel go to the men barracks. Anne,
Margot, Mrs. Frank, and Mrs. Van Daan are sent to the
women’s barracks. Mr. Frank never sees his wife or
daughters again.
 Anne and Margot are sent to Bergen-Belsen, in
October 1944. Mrs. Van Daan arrives at Bergen-Belsen
at the end of November.
 Edith Frank dies of disease and/or malnutrition at
Auschwitz on January 6, 1945
 Otto Frank & Auschwitz is liberated on January 26,
1945 by the Russians.
 Mr. Frank made it back and arrived at Miep’s doorstep
on June 3rd, 1945.
Where was Bergen-Belsen?
 Bergen-Belsen was a
concentration camp located in
northern Germany. BergenBelsen was established in April
1943 as a detention camp for
prisoners who were to be
exchanged with German
imprisoned in Allied countries.
 Bergen-Belsen was liberated by
the British Army on April 15,
What happened to Anne and Margot?
Anne and Margot
both died of typhus
and starvation
during FebruaryMarch 1945.
Bergen-Belsen was
liberated by the
British Army on
April 15, 1945.
What happened to Mr. Dussel?
He was deported to Neuengamme
concentration camp near Hamburg
and died n 20 December 1944. His
cause of death was listed in the
camp records as "enterocolitis", a
catch-all term that covered, among
other things, dysentery and cholera,
both of which were common causes
of death in the camps.
 (Charlotte Kaletta married Fritz Pfeffer posthumously
on 9 April 1953. His son, Werner, survived the war in
England and emigrated to the United States in
What happened to Mrs. Van Daan?
 Mrs. Van Daan, we
think, was transferred
before March 1945 to
Buchenwald, then to
the Theresienstadt
ghetto. She is believed
to have died either en
route to
Theresienstadt, or
shortly after her arrival
What happened to Peter?
 He was transferred to and then
died in Mauthausen after a
death march.
 Mauthausen Concentration
Camp records indicate that
Peter van Pels was registered
upon his arrival there on 25
January 1945. Four days later,
he was placed in an outdoor
labor group. On 11 April 1945,
Peter was sent to the sick
barracks. His exact death date is
unknown but the Red Cross
designated it as 2 May 1945. He
was 18 years old.
 Mauthausen was liberated three
days later on 5 May 1945 by
men from the 11th Armored
Division of the U.S. Third Army.
What happened to Mr. Frank?
 Otto remarried in 1953 to a
neighbor Elfriede GeiringerMarkovits (Fritzi) and moved to
Basel, Switzerland.
 When he heard that the office
building where he and his family
hid for two years was scheduled
to be torn down, he began the
Anne Frank Foundation (1957)
in order to acquire the space
and turned the building into a
museum in 1960. The Anne
Frank-Fonds in Basel was set up
in 1966 to protect his daughter’s
name and deal with royalties
from the diary which benefits
several charities.
 Otto Frank died on August 19th,
1980 after a battle with cancer,
he was ninety-one years old.
What happened to Anne’s friends?
 Hannah, Gabi, and her father were
taken to Bergen-Belsen.
 While there, she was able to see
Anne, who was in the prisoner section
of the camp. Hannah was able to talk
to Anne several times through the
barrier, and to toss some essentials
over it for her. Shortly after Hannah
threw the bundle over the fence for
Anne, Anne's contingent of prisoners
was moved, and Hannah never heard
from her again.
 Hannah and her little sister Gabi were
the only members of their family to
survive the war, and Hannah was near
death from typhus and tuberculosis
when the Russians liberated the train
in which she and Gabi were being
transported, reportedly to
 After recovering, Hannah emigrated to
Israel, became a nurse, and ultimately
a grandmother of ten.
What happened to Anne’s friends?
Helmuth "Hello" Silberberg
 Hello had been living in Amsterdam with
his grandparents, but by a very
convoluted series of events, including
several narrow escapes from the Nazis,
he was able eventually to reunite with
his parents in Belgium. Belgium was
also an occupied country, however, and
he and his family were still "in hiding",
though not under circumstances as
difficult as the Franks.
 The town where the Silberbergs were
hiding was liberated by American forces
on 3 September 1944, and Hello was
free — tragically on the same day that
Anne and her family left on the last
transport from Westerbork to Auschwitz.
 Hello emigrated to the United States
after the war, and is today known as Ed
Silverberg.He appears as Ed Silverberg
in the multimedia stage presentation
about the Holocaust called, And Then
They Came for Me.
The only know video footage of
Anne Frank
The Secret Annex
Was Anne's diary the only diary
ever found from the Holocaust?
 No, there are many diaries and testimonies from the
Holocaust. Students may want to read more, such as
 We are Witnesses: Five Diaries of Teenagers Who Died in
the Holocaust, Jacob Boas (Scholastic, 1995)
 Witnesses to War, Eight True-Life stories of Nazi persecution,
Michael Leapman (Viking 1998)
 Edith's Story, Edith Velmans, (Bantam) 2000
 Salvaged Pages: Young Writers' Diaries of the Holocaust,
Alexandra Zapruder (Yale University Press) 2002.
"How will
learning about
her life change
the way you live