File - World History

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Transcript File - World History

The End
of WWII in
and the
North African Campaign
•Drive Axis (Germany/Italy)
powers out of North Africa
and Middle East
•Divert German forces from
Russian Front
Erwin Rommel (aka – Dessert Fox)
Commander of the Nazi forces in
North Africa and on D Day
D-Day: The Invasion of Europe
“Operation Overlord”
• June 6th. 1944, the Allies returned to Europe. It would
be the greatest amphibious invasion ever mounted
• 156,000 Canadian, British, and American troops
went ashore in 24 hrs.
• They were the beginning of 2,000,000 more. The
German entrusted with stopping the invasion was
Field Marshall Erwin Rommel.
• The Allied Supreme Commander for Operation
“Overlord” was General Dwight D. Eisenhower. In a
phrase that became history; “…for the Allies, as well
as for Germany, it will be the longest day.”
General Eisenhower
Talking to his men,
general Dwight D.
Eisenhower, commander
of the Normandy
invasion, wished
paratroopers luck before
they dropped behind
German lines in France
on d-day.
D-Day - June 6, 1944
Landing on Normandy Beach
It was the largest sea borne invasion in history.
The Holocaust, 1941-45
“The Final Solution”
• Until 1941, Hitler and Nazis did not agree on
what to do with Jews
• Emigration
• Madagascar
• Put them into Ghettos
• Limited jobs
• Einsatzgruppen: “Mobile Killing Groups” or
“Single-task groups”
jews arrested
Identify and label Jews
Some Casualties of World War II
End is near!
• After D-Day, the Allied forces
continued to push toward
• The Germans launched a
massive counter-attack at
the Ardennes Forest which
proved a disastrous failure
for the Germans and a
turning point for the Allied
• In April of 1945, the Red
Army (USSR) reached
• The end of the war in Europe
was only one month away.
Above, the Germans sign the
surrender document in Berlin.
Below, the Germans sign the
Unconditional Surrender document in
France officially ending the war.
12 April 1945,
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies; he is
succeeded by his Vice-president, Harry S. Truman.
Hitler’s Suicide and Germany’s
In April of 1945, the Red Army
reached Berlin, Germany’s
On April 30th, ten days after
his birthday, Hitler and his wife
Eva Braun committed suicide.
Many Nazi officials escaped
out of Germany before the
Red Army came. Those that
stayed were captured by the
The city surrendered on May
2nd, 1945 to the Russians.
On May 7th, 1945 the war in
Europe was officially over.
Hitler’s official
death picture, his
wife Eva Braun
and his dog
The Death Toll
Making Sense of the Numbers
• The Soviet Union had the
highest military and civilian
casualties, followed by China
and then Germany.
• The Nazis killed over 14 million
people in their labor and death
• They murdered six million Jews.
• London, Berlin, Dresden, and
Tokyo were heavily bombed
with high civilian casualties.
• Millions of Chinese civilians
were murdered by the Japanese.
• The Atomic bomb killed over
250,000 civilians in Nagasaki
and Hiroshima.
• Total estimated deaths during
WWII range between 40 and 50
Overall human costs
• 5.1-6.0 million Jews
– 800,000 in Ghettos
– 1,400,000 in open-air shootings
– 2,900,000 in camps
1.8 -1.9 million Poles
200,000-800,000 Roma & Sinti
200,000-300,000 people with disabilities
10,000-25,000 gay men
2,000 Jehovah's Witnesses
Europe after WWII
Dresden, Germany
The Bombing of London
The Bombing of Hamburg
• April 1945, "United Nations" formed in
San Francisco.
• 28 April 1945, Benito Mussolini, and
sixteen of Mussolini's body-guards are
assassinated in the village of Giulino di
Messegra, on Lake Como, Italy.
• 30 April 1945, Adolf Hitler, Eva Braun,
Goebbels and his wife commit suicide in
the bunker under the Reich Chancellery
in Berlin, Germany
Germany Surrenders
May 7, 1945
Potsdam Conference,
summer 1945
• USA: Harry S Truman
• USSR: J. Stalin
• Great Britain: W. Churchill, then
Clement Atlee
• Solved nothing
• Showed sides in emerging Cold War
• Truman told Stalin about the bomb
War Crimes
Bringing Justice and Order Back to the
After WWII, the Allied World.
leaders agreed to hold
trials in Germany, Japan,
and Italy for those that
committed crimes
against humanity.
– The Nuremberg Trials
sought justice for the
Jews and eight million
Poles, Slavs, and Gypsies
that were murdered in the
Nazi Death Camps.
Nuremberg, Germany
Some of the guilty got away
• Many Nazi fugitives fled to Argentina
• Argentina had sympathy for Germany
• “Angel of Death” Josef Rudolf Mengele aka:
Wolfgang Gerhard
José Mengele
Helmut Gregor
Rudolph Weiss
Dr. Fausto Rindón
S. Josi Alvers Aspiazu
Died in 1979 – DNA testing proved his true identity
Was head medical director of Auschwitz
Chose who lived and died
Experimented on thousands of people – especially
Hermann Goering, on the left was
sentenced to execution. He
committed suicide in prison.
Rudolf Hess, above, was
sentenced to 40 years life
imprisonment. He committed
suicide at age 93!
Justice Served?
• Of the 22 accused of
crimes against
– 11 were sentenced to
– 3 were acquitted.
– 3 were given life
– 4 were given prison
terms of 10 to 20 years.
– Execution sentences
were carried out on
October 6th, 1946.
Spandau Prison, Germany
The Fighting Sullivans
• Five brothers: Joseph (23),
Francis(25), Albert(19),
Madison(22), and George(27)
• From Waterloo, Iowa
• Patriotism prompted all the
brothers to join at the same
• They insisted that they stayed
• All in the Navy aboard the
USS Jeneau
All died when Japan torpedoed their
ship in 1942
3 brothers died right away
1 drowned the next day
1 died 4 days later (sharks)
30 other pairs of brothers were on the ship
Laws changed “Sole Survivor Policy”
– Separated siblings
– Not all siblings can join
– Their story inspired “Saving Private Ryan”
Extra Credit – due tomorrow
• You are president FDR
• Write a letter to the Sullivan parents
expressing your gratitude for their service
and emotion over the loss of their sons.
• At least two paragraphs neatly written.
• 20 points extra credit