IV. Rhetorical devices

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Transcript IV. Rhetorical devices

Speech on Hitler's Invasion of
the U.S.S.R
Teaching Objectives
 Learn background information
 Understand the writing style of the
 Get to know rhetorical devices
Teaching Points
I. Background information
II. Structural analysis
III. Detailed study of the text
IV. Rhetorical devices
I. Background Information
World War II: (1937 / 1939 -1945)
 The conflict resulted from the rise of totalitarian, fascism in
German, Japan and Italy
 July 7. 1937
 Japan invaded Central China.
 Sep. 1938
 Munich Pact, which sacrificed much of Czechoslovakia to
 Aug. 1939
 Russia-Germany non-aggression pact
 Sept. 1, 1939
 German invasion of Poland
 Sept. 3, 1939
 France and Britain declared war on Germany, officially
beginning World War II
Background Information
June 22, 1940
France surrendered.
Aug-Oct. 1940
The Battle of Britain (2,300 to 900)
Jun 22. 1941
German invasion of the Soviet Union.
I. Background Information
Dec. 7, 1941
Pearl Harbour
 Sept. 1943
 the Allies conquered Sicily and South Italy. Italy
 May 7. 1945
 Germany surrendered unconditionally.
 Aug. 14, 1945
 Japan announced its surrender.
Background Information
 Adolph Hitler, (1889
- 1945) founder and
leader of the
National Socialist
Workers‘ Party, was
born an Austrian.
 1920 the Nazi Party
 1933 Chancellor
Background Information
the union of the presidency and
chancellorship in Hitler's person,
the Führer
Background Information
an assassination attempt
April 29, 1945
married his long-time mistress, Eva
April 30, 1945
committed suicide
Background Information
MEIN KAMPT - My Struggle
Aryan's Superiority
Nazi: National sozialist
the National Socialist German
Workers' Party
Elite Corps, black guards
Background Information
Sir Winston Leonard
Spencer Churchill
(Nov. 30, 1874 Jan. 24, 1965)
May 1940 - May
1945 first tenure as
Oct. 1951 - Jan.
tenure as P.M.
Background Information
1953 knighted
Sir Winston Churchill
1953 the Nobel Prize in Literature
1955 refusing the title of duke
II. Structural analysis
Part I: a piece of narration
Background of the speech
Part II. the speech proper
an argument or persuasion
Section 1: The Nazi regime…
horrors upon mankind…
Scenario on both sides of the
To arouse emotion.
II. Structural analysis
 Section 2: I have to declare the…in
determination and in resources.
 What we should do.
 Section 3: This is no time…life and power
 Further persuasion, to convince the audience
of the justification of the decision.
II. Structural analysis
 Type of literature-- a piece of argumentation
 The purpose of a piece of argumentation:
 -- to persuade, that is, to defend what is true
and to attack what is false by the use of reason
 Ways of developing a piece of argumentation: -by deduction -- by induction
III. Detailed Study of the Text
conviction: a very firm and sincere
Conviction usu. implies previous doubt
or uncertainty.
I speak in the full conviction that our
cause is just.
His political convictions are radical.
III. Detailed Study of the Text
certainty: the state of being definite or
having no doubts
(here in the text) clearly established
It's a certainty that this horse will win
in the race.
After three days, our victory became
a certainty.
III. Detailed Study of the Text
 surprise: attack suddenly and without warning
 They surprised the enemy from the rear.
 ground: (of pilot or plane) to stay on the ground
 The ship grounded on a hidden sandbank in the
shallow water.
 grounded on the airfield: lying still on the airfield
III. Detailed Study of the Text
round up: to gather together scattered
animals, to collect together animals
that are scattered
A cowboy / dog rounds up the cattle /
III. Detailed Study of the Text
horde: a large number or crowd,
a horde of locusts
When a contemptuous term is
desired, it is preferred to crowd and
throng, esp, when implying rude,
rough or savage character.
Detailed Study of the Text
be true of: be the same case, be
suitable to
What he says of women is true of
People in cities have larger houses
now, and the same is true of the living
condition in the countryside.
Detailed Study of the Text
revert to: to go back to a former
subject, talk about again
The pressure made him revert to his
old habit of smoking.
Shall we revert to our previous topic?
arch: principal, chief
arch- angel, bishop, criminal, enemy,
rebel, rival, etc.
Detailed Study of the Text
not bowing down in the House of
Q: You are not doing sth. against your
own beliefs, are you?
A: No, not at all.
Detailed Study of the Text
Rimmon:a deity worshipped by Syrians
of Damascus.
Syrian Captain Naaman had leprosy.
His Israeli servant told Elisha, a prophet
Elisha told Naaman to wash in the
Jordan River 7 times and thus he was
Detailed Study of the Text
 The Nazi regime is extremely cruel. It has
invaded other countries in the most savage way.
The invasions are so effective that they
surpass all other kind of human cruelty.
 The Nazi regime is very effective in cruel
suppression of and savage attack on other
countries, in this respect it is worse than any
other known form of evil.
Detailed Study of the Text
means of existence: (Here) food and
clothing to keep people alive, things
for people to survive
wring (wrung): to press hard on,
squeeze, to twist, to get by force
to wring water from the wet clothes
His sad story wrung our hearts.
IV. Rhetorical devices
 Simile: a comparison between two unlike things having at
least one quality or characteristic in common.
 tenor: the subject of the comparison
 Vehicle: the image of which this idea is conveyed
 The vehicle is almost always introduced by the word "like" or
IV. Rhetorical devices
The bus (tenor) went as slowly
similarity as a snail (vehicle).
The water lay grey and wrinkled like
an elephant's skin.
 Her eyes were jet black, and her hair
was like a waterfall.
IV. Rhetorical devices
 Metaphor: a comparison between two unlike things, but the
comparison is implied rather than stated. Contrary to a simile
in which the resemblance between two unlike things is
clearly stated, in a metaphor nothing is mentioned.
 The essential form of a metaphor is X is Y, and all forms of
metaphor can be condensed into this form.
IV.Rhetorical devices
 Snow clothes the ground.
 Snow (X---tenor) is clothe (Y---vehicle).
 Boys and girls, tumbling in the streets and playing,
were moving jewels.
 Boy (X---tenor) is jewel (Y---vehicle) .
 The ship ploughed the sea.
 Ship (X --- tenor) is plough (Y ---vehicle)
IV. Rhetorical devices
They will be rounded up in hordes.
I see Russian soldiers standing on
the threshold...
Means of existence is wrung from the
IV.Rhetorical devices
cataract of horrors
rid the earth of his shadow...liberate
people from his yoke
The scene will be clear for the final
IV.Rhetorical devices
dull, drilled, docile...
for his hearth and home
with its clanking, heel-clicking...
IV.Rhetorical devices
 Assonance: the use of the same or related, vowel
sounds in successive words
 clanking, heel-clicking,…
 cowing and tying ...plodding on like crawling
locusts, ...smarting from many a British whipping...
 easier and safer prey
IV.Rhetorical devices
We have but one aim and one single purpose
nothing will turn us---nothing
We will never parley, we will never negotiate...
This is our policy and this is our declaration
as we shall faithfully and steadfastly
IV.Rhetorical devices
The past, with its crimes,
its follies,
and its tragedies...
I see,...I see...
the return of the bread-winner,
of their champion,
of their protector
IV.Rhetorical devices
We shall fight him by land,
we shall fight him by sea,
we shall fight him in the air
Any man or state...
Any man or state...
Let us...
Let us...
IV.Rhetorical devices
Noun phrases:
I had not the slightest doubt where ...
With great rapidity and violence
Periodic sentences:
When I awoke on...invasion of Russia.
If Hitler imagines that... woefully mistaken.