History of Computers - Marquette University High School

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Transcript History of Computers - Marquette University High School

History of Computers
Brian Callen
Early Computers
• Hewlett – Packard was founded in 1939.
• In 1940, the Complex Number Calculator (CNC) was
invented, which provided the first example of
remote access computing.
• In 1941, the first Bombe computer was built.
• Many Bombes were built and greatly improved the
intelligence and processing powers of the Allies.
• In 1944, the first Colossus computer was built to
break the complex ciphers used by the Nazis.
• In 1946, ENIAC was completed, which was 1,000
times faster than other computers of the time.
• Completed in 1948, IBM´s Selective Sequence
Electronic Calculator created the moon position
tables used in the 1969 Apollo 11 mission.
Early Computers
• In 1951, the UNIVAC I was the first commercial
computer to get public attention.
• IBM shipped its first computer, the 701, in
• In 1956, MIT built the first general-purpose,
programmable computer built with transistors.
• In 1960, DEC’s PDP-1 was the first computer
with a display screen, no need for air
conditioning, and only one operator.
• In 1964, IBM released the first set of
compatible computers that could work
• The first commercially successful minicomputer
was made by IBM in 1965.
More Advanced Computers
• In 1968, the Apollo Guidance Computer was first
used in the Apollo 7 mission.
• In 1974, the Alto was the first computer with a
built-in mouse.
• In 1976, Steve Wozinak and Steve Jobs built the
Apple-1 computed and founded Apple Computer,
• In 1979, Atari released two computers with game
• The Macintosh was released in 1984. It was the
first successful computer with a mouse and graphic
user interface.
Early Storage Methods
• In 1952, magnetic tape was invented and allowed
for inexpensive mass storage.
• In 1956, IBM made the first magnetic disk storage
• IBM’s storage disk device was released in 1961,
and its capacity was 28 million characters.
• In 1962, virtual memory was invented at the
University of Manchester on an Atlas computer.
• Virtual memory allowed a computer to switch
between multiple programs.
Newer Storage Methods
• IBM’s 8-inch floppy diskette was released in 1971.
• It quickly was accepted as a widespread storage
• The 5 ¼” flexible disk was released in 1978 by many
• The first hard disk was made in 1980 by Seagate
• Hard disks were an essential part of the computer
• Sony introduced the 3 ½” floppy disk in 1981, and
Hewlett – Packard adopted it for general use in
Important People
Grace Hopper
• She identified the first computer “bug” on
September 9, 1945.
• She found an actual bug, a moth, stuck in the relays
of the Harvard Mark II.
• However, the term came to represent a glitch or
flaw in a program.
• She was a Rear Admiral in the U.S. Navy and had
successful careers in business and computers.
• She helped build the Harvard Mark I and II
• She made the first compiler, A-0, and her work on
programming languages led to the language
Alan Turning
• He posed important questions on judging human
intelligence and programming.
• His seminal paper, called “On Computable
Numbers,” was published in 1936.
• He worked on the design of several computers
during his career.
• He was a mathematical genius, and his skills were
extremely helpful to code-breaking efforts during
World War II.
• His use of logic in code-breaking was significant in
his creation of the concept of a “universal machine.”
• He died at age 42.
Robots and Artificial
Artificial Intelligence
• During World War II, Norbert Wiener worked on
anti-aircraft systems that could interpret radar
images to anticipate the paths of enemy aircraft.
• In 1948, Wiener published “Cybernetics,” which was
an important influence on later artificial intelligence.
• In 1965, a team at Stanford created DENDRAL, which
used “if-then” rules to identify the molecular
structure of organic materials.
• Texas Instruments introduced “Speak and Spell” in
1978, the first machine to duplicate human speech.
• The Musical Instrument Digital Interface was
introduced in 1983, which tells a synthesizer
information about musical notes.
• In 1959, MIT demonstrated the first computerassisted manufacturing.
• UNIMATE, the first industrial robot, began work in
• The Stanford Arm, made in 1969, was the first
successful electric-powered, computer-controlled
robotic arm.
• Shakey, developed by SRI International, was the first
robot guided by artificial intelligence.
• After 12 years of development, the Stanford Cart
was completed in 1979, which crossed a chair-filled
room without human intervention.