Cell Structure and Function

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Transcript Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function
OBJECTIVE
Today we will talk about the difference
between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
We will also review for the quiz tomorrow by
playing a game!
The Cell Theory
All living things are composed of cells.
Cells are the basic units of structure
and function in living things.
New cells are produced from existing
cells.
Types of Cells
Two kinds of cells depending on whether
they have a nucleus
Eukaryote
Prokaryote
Genetic
material
Prokaryotes
 Usually small and simple
 Genetic material (DNA)
is not contained in a
nucleus
 The ONLY prokaryotes
in the world are
BACTERIA.
Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotes
 Usually larger and more
complex than
prokaryotes.
 May be unicellular like
an amoeba or
multicellular like a plant
 Contain dozens of
specialized structures
called organelles.
 Includes protists, fungi,
plants and animals.
Eukaryotic cells
Lysosomes-The Clean Up Crew
 Function:
 Breakdown of lipids,
carbohydrates and
proteins into small
molecules to be used by
the rest of the cell
 Breakdown used up
organelles
 Get rid of all “stuff” in
the cell
 Structure:
 Small, filled with
enzymes
Plant vs. Animal Cell
Vacuoles - Storage
 Function:
Stores water, salts,
proteins and
carbohydrates
 Structure:
Sac-like
Plant cells have one
large central vacuole
Animal cells have many
small vacuoles
Chloroplasts – Energy in Plants
 Function:
 Captures energy from the
sun (solar energy) and
changes it into food
(chemical energy) for plants
(photosynthesis)
 Structure:
 Surrounded by two
membranes
 Contains own genetic
information like
mitochondria
 Contains green pigment
called chlorophyll
 Not found in animal cells!
CILIA/FLAGELLA
 Cilia are short hair-like structures that help the cell move
around.
 Flagella are long whip-like structures that also assist the
cell in moving.
Cell Wall
 Function:
Provides support and
protection for the cell
 Structure:
Lies outside the cell
membrane
Found in plants, algae,
fungi and many
bacteria
NOT FOUND IN
ANIMAL CELLS!