Interphase -

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Transcript Interphase -

Anatomy & Physiology
Cells vary in SIZE and STRUCTURE
Depends on what they do
All Animal Cells have
• Nucleus
• Cytoplasm (cytosol)
• Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane is
Lipid bilayer (phospholipids) make up the membrane with
proteins embedded to help regulate what comes across
the membrane
ORGANELLES- "little organs" within
the cell that perform specific functions
The nucleus is to the cell what the __________is to a person.
The cell membrane is to a cell what the ________ is to a
• Transport system; canals and channels that
connect membrane to nucleus and to organelles
within the cell
• Smooth ER (lipid synthesis)
• Rough ER (contains ribosomes for protein manufacture)
• Flattened membranes; function to package and
deliver proteins produced by the ribosomes
• Proteins are exported in vesicles
• Chemical energy from food is converted to a
useable form (ATP)
• process is called Cellular Respiration
• The “powerhouse” of the cell
• Lysosomes - contain digestive enzymes to break
down substances
• Centrosome – forms a spindle during cell
• Vesicles – packaged substances, exported
• Microfilaments and Microtubules - cell skeleton
(cytoskeleton), maintains shape and functions in
• Cilia & Flagella - movement
• Directs cell activities (the “brain” of the cell)
• Contains genetic information (DNA) in the form of
• Also contains a nucleolus – makes ribosomes
• Has tiny pores where RNA can exit the nucleus
• Diffusion - molecules tend to spread out
• Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion Animation
o Hypertonic
o Hypotonic
o Isotonic
Osmosis Animation
Active Transport
 Exocytosis
 Endocytosis (phagocytosis & pinocytosis)
• Mitosis = nuclear division
• Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis (cell division)
• The steps of mitosis ensure that each new cell
has the exact same number of chromosomes as
the original
• Interphase = growth phase, differentiation occurs
• Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase •
1. chromosomes visible (chromatids)
2. centrioles migrate to the poles
3. nuclear membrane disappears
4. nucleolus disappears
5. spindle forms
1. chromosomes line up on the equator, spindle
1. chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
1. chromosomes disappear
2. nuclear membrane reforms
3. nucleoli reappears
4. spindle disappears
5. centrioles duplicate
- division of the cytoplasm to form 2 new daughter
- organelles are divided
- daughter cells are genetically identical
Cells return to interphase
1.Name the phases
starting at the top.
1.Name the phase
2.Identify X
3.Identify Y
5. Name the phase
6. Name the structure
1.Name the structure
2.What is its function?
9. Which beaker(S) contains a solution that is
hypertonic relative to the bag
10. What will happen to the baggie in the hypertonic