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Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
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Overview of the two days
Day One
Day Two
8.30am Registration and coffee
8.45am Welcome and workshop overview
8.30am Review and recap day one
9.00am Session I:
Cable Preparation, Enclosures and Racks
Max Wilson and Andrew Bryson, ACFIPS
9.00am Session I: Fundamentals of fibre optics
Connecting and patching with fibre
From 2500 BC to 2011 AD: The key steps.
10.30am Morning tea
10.45am Session II: Inspection and Testing
Session II: Principles of optical communication
10.15am Morning tea
10.30 am Session III:
Optical fibre types and optical networks
Fibre to the home and industrial networks
12.00pm Lunch
12.45pm Session IV:
LAN and Telecommunications
Fusion and mechanical splicing
2.45pm Afternoon tea
3.00pm Session V
Factors affecting loss in ribbon fibre
Measuring methods
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
12.00pm Lunch
12.45pm Session lll:
Fusing and splicing ribbon fibre
Safe practice for fusing and splicing
All participants will have access to fusion slicing equipment
2.45pm Afternoon tea
3.00pm Session IV:
Ribbonizing fiber and course review
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AusOptic international
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Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
Established in 1994
Specializing in Fiber Optics
Wide range of optical products
Regional responsibility for Fitel
splicing equipment
Local Complete service of Fitel
fusion splicers
Local programming of SFP/XFP
Product training on OTDR’s, Power
meters, Fusion splicers
Full support for all products
Major brands, Anritsu, JDSU, Fitel,
Juniper, Cisco, Ideal, Miller,
Norland, Nanometer, forte.
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Fundamentals of Fiber Optics
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
History
1841
Daniel Colladon demonstrates light guiding in jet
of water
120 years later we have lasers
By 1970 we finally have fiber that have a low
enough attenuation to be of use in
communications
2010 The technologies keep coming
giving us better distances , more
stable systems and greater capacity.
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Key Components
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Optical transmitters
Optical receivers
Optical fibers
Dispersion‐compensating modules
Fiber amplifiers
Optical filters, fiber Bragg gratings and couplers
Optical switches and multiplexers, reconfigurable
optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs)
Devices for signal regeneration
Various kinds of electronics e.g. for signal
processing and monitoring
Computers and software to control the system
operation
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Communication Networks
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Communication Networks
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Communication Networks
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Communication Networks
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Communication Networks
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Communication Networks
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from sand to a light pipe
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
from sand to a light pipe
Silicon dioxide – SiO2
One of our most abundant oxide in the worlds crust
As a point of interest Australia has a major producer “Simcoa Operations” in Western Australia.
Silicon production commenced in December 1989.
Today Simcoa is capable of producing in excess of 33,000 tonnes of high purity silicon annually.
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from sand to a light pipe
From is molten
state glass can be
produced with
rapid cooling.
Preforms
manufactured using
Vapour Deposition
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from sand to a light pipe
Draw towers convert the preform into the fiber
before coating, preforms can make up to 30 km of
fiber from one preform.
When Telstra rolled out its network we had two
draw towers in production. Today we only have
research (small production) towers in Australia.
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fiber types
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fiber configuration
The 125um raw fiber is coated
wth 250um buffer first then
900um for cord and raiser
applications. In ribbon it is only
coated with 250um prior to
bonding or lamination
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Cable Structures
Four main types of Ribbon Cable
Loose tube
Slotted
Uni Tube
Patch Cord
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Cable Preparation
Cable preparation varies with depending on the manufacturer and the type
of cable. The video from Prysmian is a resent run and give you a good idea
of the accepted practice.
Prysmian Cable preparation video
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Connections in the Optical Network
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
Connections in the Network
Typical connection we have are Patch leads at both ends of the network, Fusion
splicing in Universal enclosures, Field Pluggable network connections, Central
office or exchange Pigtails.
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Connections in the Network
Starting at the Exchange,
Central office or Field Access
Node we have mass spliced
pigtails in the racks
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Connections in the Network
The pigtails are presented on a
ribbon fiber which enables us to
splice 12 pigtails at a time.
In the case of a 144 pigtails it
would take about the same time
as 10 single fiber pigtails.
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Connections in the Network
The Design of enclosure to suit Ribbon fiber has
posed a few problems. Basically the fiber can not
be laid up the same way as single fiber loose
tube, ribbon does not have the same flexibility,
as such corning took a new approach with the
“spine” while others have designed new tray to
accommodate the ribbon, in all cases the storage
area once used to provide extra cable now
accommodates fiber from the tray.
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Connections in the Network
Optitip and Optitap are a field
ruggedized connection that is
being used in FTTH
While some applications need the
tube fanned out in the rack, the
unit shown has individual tubes for
each fiber.
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The Fusion Splice
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
Fusion Splicing
Splicing Technology
• First Cladding Alignment Splicer
by Fujikura 1977
• First LID alignment splicer by
Siemens 1984
• First PAS alignment Splicer by
Fujikura 1985
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Fusion Splicing
Michelson interference fringes give us a
method to measure the shape and angle of
the cleave.
Polished ends are also show the effect of
the glass being chipped by the blade.
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Fusion Splicing
Arc being vied from inside chamber plus a view of the screen
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Fusion Splicing
SM to BBSX splice on splicer screen and tri electrode arc
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Fusion Splicing
Ribbon fiber positioned in a wide even temperature zone for even
splicing across all fibers.
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Fusion Splicing
Aligning Method: Passive
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Fusion Splicing
Aligning Method: Active
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Fusion Splicing
Types of Splicing systems
• Large fiber splicing
• High strength splicing
• Core alignment with fiber
rotation
• Core alignment
• Active cladding alignment
• Cladding alignment
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Mechanical Splice
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
Mechanical Splice
Ribbon Mechanical splices have
been around for a decade, may suit
emergency repairs or connections
requiring a fast low set up cost
solution
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types of connectors
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
types of connectors
Connectors, flat and radius
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types of connectors
MPO/MTP
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types of connectors
MPO/MTP ruggedized for field pluggable applications
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types of connectors
MPO/MTP inspection and cleaning
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Loss on Optical Fiber
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
Loss on Optical Fiber
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Rayleigh scattering - Scattering of light caused by index of refraction variations in the
submicroscopic structure of the glass.
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Absorption -A physical mechanism in fibers that attenuates light by converting it in to heat
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Manufacturing irregularities - Such as geometric variations in core diameter or circularity,
voids in the glass, defects at the core-cladding interface, and imperfect application of
dopants, can cause scattering loss. However, these regularities are usually negligible in
present day fibers.
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Microbending - Curvatures of the fiber that involve axial displacements of a few micrometers
and spatial wavelength of a few millimeters. Microbends cause loss of light and consequently
increase the attenuation of the fiber. Loss due to microscopic bends in the fiber.
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Macrobending - Macroscopic axial deviation of a fiber from a straight line, in contrast to
microbending. Loss due to large bends in the fiber.
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Loss on Optical Fiber
Factors that influence the loss in a Fusion Splice
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Optical Testing
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
Optical Testing
Power Meter
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Optical Testing
OTDR
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Optical Testing
Fiber or Traffic Identifier and VFL
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Tooling: Ribbon Fiber and Cable
Optical Ribbon Fiber in today’s networks
Tooling: Ribbon Fiber and Cable
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Tooling: Ribbon Fiber and Cable
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Thank you
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