Cell Membrane - holyoke
Transcript Cell Membrane - holyoke
“Keeping it all Together”
you think about a membrane, imagine it is
like a big plastic bag with some tiny holes.
► That bag holds all of the cell pieces and fluids
inside the cell and keeps any nasty things outside
the cell. The holes are there to let some things
move in and out of the cell.
Cell Membrane cont…
cell membrane is what defines the cell
and keeps its components separate from
outside cells or organisms.
The cell membrane is composed of a double
layer of fat cells called a lipid bilayer in
which membrane proteins are embedded.
► The structure of the lipid bilayer prevents
the free passage of most molecules into and
out of the cell.
composition of nearly all cell
membranes is a double-layered sheet called
a lipid bilayer.
The Lipid Bilayer
lipid bilayer is a universal component of
all cell membranes
► Its role is critical because its structural
components provide the barrier that marks
the boundaries of a cell.
► The structure is called a "lipid bilayer"
because it is composed of two layers of fat
cells organized in two sheets.
Lipid Bilayer Structure
structure of the lipid bilayer explains its
function as a barrier
► Lipids are fats, like oil, that are insoluble in
water. There are two important regions of a
lipid that provide the structure of the lipid
Lipid Bilayer Structure cont…
lipid molecule contains a hydrophilic
region or polar head region and a
hydrophobic region or non polar tail
The hydrophilic region is attracted to
aqueous water conditions while the
hydrophobic region is repelled from
most abundant class of lipid molecule
found in cell membranes is the
Properties of Lipid Bilayer
important property is that it is highly
► Impermeable means it does not allow
molecules to pass through it easily
► Some molecules require the assistance of
Another Bilayer Property:
property of the bilayer is it’s
► The bilayer contains lipids and proteins
► The bilayer's fluidity allows these structures
mobility within the lipid bilayer
is the main function of the lipid
Answer to Question #1
lipid bilayer acts as a barrier between
the inside and outside of the cell. It is highly
impermeable and does not allow most
molecules to freely pass through it into or
out of the cell.
Quiz Question #2
is the structure called a lipid bilayer?
Answer to Question #2
is called a lipid bilayer because it is
composed of two layers of fat, or lipid,
Quiz Question #3 – Fill in the Blank
phospholipid molecule contains two
distinct regions. The __________ region is
attracted to water and the ___________
region is repelled from water.
Answers to Question #3
the lipid bilayer provides the
structure for the cell membrane,
membrane proteins allow for many of the
interactions that occur between cells.
Membrane Proteins cont…
proteins perform various
functions, and this diversity is reflected in
the significantly different types of proteins
associated with the lipid bilayer.
Classifying Membrane Proteins
are generally broken down into the
smaller classifications of integral proteins,
peripheral proteins, and
transmembrane proteins…(type of
proteins are embedded within the
► They cannot easily be removed from the cell
membrane without the use of harsh
detergents that destroy the lipid bilayer.
► Integral proteins float rather freely within
the bilayer, much like oceans in the sea.
proteins are attached to the
exterior of the lipid bilayer.
► They are easily separable from the lipid
bilayer, able to be removed without harming
the bilayer in any way.
► Peripheral proteins are less mobile within
the lipid bilayer
proteins are located entirely
within the boundaries of the lipid bilayer
► Often act as “channels” for molecules to
pass through the membrane!
The Cell Membrane
have discussed how the lipid bilayer acts as an
efficient barrier by only allowing a very small
number of non-polar molecules to freely enter or
exit a cell. While for the most part this selectivity
is a valuable function and allows the cell to
maintain its integrity, cells do need to move
certain large, polar molecules such as amino
acids, sugars, and nucleotides across their
membranes. As a result, cell membranes
require specific structures that allow for the
transport of certain molecules.
are a number of different ways that
molecules can pass from one side of a cell
membrane to the other
► Some such means, like diffusion and
osmosis, are natural processes that require
no expenditure of energy from the cell
and are called passive transport.
Other methods of transport do require
cellular energy and are called active
► In addition to these two forms of transport,
there exist other forms of transport such as
endocytosis and exocytosis, which will
be discuss later.
Transport across the membrane:
Cytolysis & Plasmolysis
The cell membrane is made up of a _____
None of the Above
All eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell
The lipids in the bilayer have tails that are...
4: The heads of the lipids in the
cell membrane are...
Some molecules can pass through a cell
membrane without help.
You will also find proteins in the lipid
When something can move through a cell
membrane without using any energy (like
diffusion) it is called ___________
With energy (like larger molecules) it is called
Summary of Transport
Passive: (NO ENERGY)
&feature=related (clip on facilitated diffusion)
Summary of Transport
ACTIVE (Needs energy)
► Phagocytosis (food)
► Pinocytosis (water)
2. Exocytosis: (out)