Rock posters - EAL Nexus

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Transcript Rock posters - EAL Nexus

This project and its actions were made possible due to co-financing by the European Fund for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals
EAL Nexus resource
Rocks: sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic
Subject(s):
Geography, Science
Age group(s):
8–11, 12–14, 15–16
Topic:
Types of rocks
Licence information | This resource is free to use for educational purposes. ©British Council 2014
Source | This resource was originally developed from a resource on TES by j33ffa , Charlotte Hurley and Alison Fisher and has been adapted by
EAL Nexus.
Limestone – sedimentary rock
(rock formed from sediment)
Limestone is formed from the shells and skeletons
of sea animals so may contain fossils.
© Hannes Grobe.
It is very heavy so it cannot be used for
light
tall buildings.
It reacts with acid rain
which corrodes the
buildings.
© Coyau
It is easy to cut
and carve into
detailed
shapes.
© Serouj
heavy
Uses:
• Buildings
• Roads
• Wall filler
• Cement
Sandstone – sedimentary rock
(rock formed from sediment)
Sandstone is made of sand-sized
minerals or rock grains.
Sandstone comes in many colours such as
brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white and
black, but is usually a reddish-brown.
The surface of
sandstone is rough.
Sandstone wears
away easily in the
rain and cold.
© Connie Ma
It is easy to carve
but can crumble.
© Whitegoast.unk
Uses:
• Buildings
• Paving
• Carvings
• Sharpening
tools
Shale – sedimentary rock
(rock formed from sediment)
Shale is made of very fine rounded grains of
sediment that have compacted together.
Shale often
contains
fossils.
Shale is grey
to black in
colour.
Shale
contains mud
and flakes of
clay.
© Michael C. Rygel
Shale can be split into thin sheets.
Shale is often
found in lakes, by
rivers, on
floodplains and
offshore from
beaches.
Uses:
Tiles
Bricks
Pottery
Chalk – sedimentary rock
(rock formed from sediment)
Chalk is formed from the shells of one type
of sea creature.
Chalk is white.
© Michael King
Chalk doesn’t
weather easily, so
chalk cliffs still
stand by the sea.
Chalk is crumbly.
Chalk is porous
and can hold a
large amount of
water.
Uses:
Toothpaste
Fingerprint powder
Blackboard chalk
Obsidian – igneous rock
(rock formed when magma cools)
Obsidian is formed when molten rock cools
quickly.
Obsidian is a type of
volcanic glass.
It is dark black
and shiny.
© Simon Burchell
© AlejandroLinaresGarcia
It is hard and brittle and can be
broken to make sharp edges.
Uses:
Knives/sharp tools
Jewellery gems
Gabbro – igneous rock
(rock formed when magma cools)
Gabbro is formed when molten magma is
trapped beneath the Earth’s surface.
Gabbro is dark
grey to black in
colour.
Gabbro has large
interlocking crystals.
© Maria Ly
© Kevin Walsh
Gabbro is usually found near ocean
ridges and in mountainous areas.
© Roll-Stone
Gabbro has a
rough surface.
© Ggrrdll
Uses:
Building
Decorating buildings
Kitchen worktops
Paving stones
Basalt – igneous rock
(rock formed when magma cools)
Basalt rock is formed by the rapid cooling of
lava near the surface.
It is dark grey
and very hard.
Basalt weathers in
air and water to
change to a redbrown colour.
Basalt sometimes forms columns of
stone as it hardens.
Basalt has a rough
surface.
© Eurico Zimbres
Uses:
Cobbles
Statues
Paving roads
© ray blow
Granite – igneous rock
(rock formed when magma cools)
Granite is made when molten rock from a volcano is
cooled down and forms large interlocking crystals.
Granite is
a very
heavy
material.
light
Granite can be polished to
make it smooth and to make
it look good.
heavy
Granite comes in
many colours from
pink to grey and
sometimes black.
© Halvard
Granite is hard and
tough.
Uses:
Buildings
Kitchen worktops
Kitchen utensils
© Ggrrdll
Marble – metamorphic rock
(rock changed by heat or pressure)
Marble is made from limestone that has been
heated to change it into marble.
It is very
heavy.
It is often white and has
coloured swirls and streaks.
heavy
light
It is easy to polish and make
the surface smooth and shiny.
It is easy to carve because it
is soft and doesn’t crumble
when cut.
Uses:
• Sculptures
• Buildings
• Statues
• Chopping
boards
• Tiles
Slate – metamorphic rock
(rock changed by heat or pressure)
Slate is made when mudstones called shale
are changed by heat and pressure.
Slate is blue,
purple and
grey in colour.
Slate is
waterproof.
The crystals that
the slate is made
from are arranged
in layers.
It is easy to cut
into thin sheets
due to its layers.
Uses:
Roof and floor tiles
Walls
Decorative gravel
Gravestones
Gneiss – metamorphic rock
(rock changed by heat or pressure)
© Siim Sepp
Gneiss is formed when sedimentary and igneous
rocks are exposed to extreme temperatures and
pressure.
Gneiss often has
alternating bands of
colour that make
interesting patterns.
Gneiss has a coarse
texture and is rough
to the touch.
© Michael C Rygel
The bands
are due to
the various
rocks it is
made from.
© Daniel CD
The quartz in
gneiss makes
it sparkle.
Uses:
Building
construction
Decorative facing
Gravestones
Base for roads
Soapstone – metamorphic rock
(rock changed by heat or pressure)
Soapstone is formed when sedimentary and
igneous rocks are exposed to extreme
temperatures and pressure.
© Ra’ike
Soapstone is
grey, green, pink
or white in colour.
Soapstone is a
soft stone and
is easy to
carve with a
sharp tool
such as a
knife.
Soapstone
has a high
resistance
to heat and
acid.
Uses:
Bowls
Carved objects
Lining fireplaces
Jewellery
It feels slippery
like soap.
Soapstone can
be polished to a
smooth finish.
Limestone
Sandstone
Shale
Chalk
Obsidian
Gabbro
Basalt
Granite
Marble
Slate
Gneiss
Soapstone
Limestone
• It is a sedimentary rock.
• It is formed from the shells of sea
animals.
• It may contain remains of fossils.
• It is used in buildings and to make
cement.
• It is heavy.
• It corrodes.
Sandstone
• It is a sedimentary rock.
• It is made of sand-sized grains of similar
sizes.
• It can be many colours, but is often
reddish brown.
• It feels rough.
• It is easy to carve.
• It can crumble.
• It can be used to sharpen tools.
Shale
It is a sedimentary rock.
It is made of very fine rounded grains.
Fossils are often found in it.
It forms layers which can be split into
thin sheets.
• It can be used to make tiles.
• It is formed in lakes.
•
•
•
•
Chalk
• It is a sedimentary rock.
• It is formed from the shells of a
particular sea animal.
• It is white.
• It is porous.
• It is used to write on blackboards.
Obsidian
• It is an igneous rock.
• It is formed by magma cooling
quickly.
• It is dark and shiny like glass.
• It is used to make very sharp knives.
Gabbro
•
•
•
•
•
•
It
It
It
It
It
It
is an igneous rock.
has large interlocking crystals.
is usually dark grey.
can be used for paving stones.
is rough.
can be found in mountainous areas.
Basalt
It is an igneous rock.
It has small interlocking crystals.
It is dark grey and very hard.
It sometimes forms columns of stone
as it hardens.
• It turns red when it weathers.
•
•
•
•
Granite
• It is an igneous rock.
• It has interlocking crystals.
• It is formed by magma cooling slowly,
so it has large crystals.
• It is used for kitchen worktops
because it is so hard.
• It is heavy.
Marble
• It is a metamorphic rock.
• It is formed from limestone.
• It can be many colours but is often
white with streaks in it.
• It is used for making statues and
chopping boards.
• It is heavy.
Slate
•
•
•
•
•
It is a metamorphic rock.
It is formed from shale.
Its crystals are arranged in layers.
It is used to make roof tiles.
It can be blue, purple and grey.
Gneiss
• It is a metamorphic rock.
• It is formed from sedimentary and
igneous rocks.
• It is formed under pressure.
• It has alternating bands of colours.
• It is rough to touch.
• It sparkles.
Soapstone
• It is a metamorphic rock.
• It is quite a soft rock.
• It is used for making bowls and other
objects with carvings.
• It feels smooth and slippery.
• It has a high resistance to heat.