Scientific Process - THS Biology EOC Tutorials

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Transcript Scientific Process - THS Biology EOC Tutorials

Scientific Process
1. Students hypothesized that water pollution affects
the growth of fish. In an experiment, they added the
same amount of food to ponds polluted by fertilizers
and industrial waste. They measured fish growth and
found that most fish grow slowly in each of these
environments. Why is their conclusion not reliable?
A. They did not have a control
B. They did not have a clear hypothesis.
C. They only tested one independent variable.
D. They did not have a dependent variable.
Scientific Process
2. A student hypothesized that watching sports on television
would cause viewers’ pulse rates to increase. She designed an
experiment to determine the effect of watching sports on pulse
rate. A group of 200 volunteers took their pulse rates and then
watched their favorite sports on television. After the games, they
immediately took their pulse rates again. The data collected
showed that the pulse rates of some people increased, but the
pulse rates of an equal number of people did not change.
Although the hypothesis was not supported by the data, the
hypothesis is still valuable because it
A. may lead to further investigation
B. can be changed to fit the data
C. is the opinion of the experimenter
D. is based on beliefs of the volunteers
Scientific Process
3. Students were asked to design a lab that investigated the relationship between exercise and heart rate.
Heart rate was determined by recording the pulse rate in beats per minute. The students hypothesized that
increased exercise results in an increased heart rate. The class results for the experiment are shown in the
graph below.
Which statement is best supported by the graph?
A. Before exercising, the average pulse rate was 65; four minutes after exercising, the average pulse rate was 65.
B. After four minutes of exercising, the average pulse rate was 120; two minutes after exercising, the average
pulse rate was 120.
C. While exercising, the highest average pulse rate was 150; before exercising, the average pulse rate was 65.
D. Two minutes before exercising, the average pulse rate was 80; after two minutes of exercise, the average pulse
rate was 140.
Scientific Process
4. Students in a different science class carried out the same experiment. The data they
obtained did not support the hypothesis that increased exercise results in increased
heart rate. The most scientifically sound way to deal with this situation is to
write a new hypothesis
read about pulse rate in a biology textbook
have the students in both classes vote to decide which hypothesis is correct
ask students in a third class to do the experiment and see if their results support the
Scientific Process
5. At which stage of scientific thinking are scientists most
likely to consider the data and conclusions of other
scientists to propose new experiments?
a. observing
b. testing hypotheses
c. analyzing data
d. forming hypotheses
Cell Processes
6. What type of organism might contain the cell shown above?
A. Alga
B. Animal
C. Bacterium
D. Plant
Cell Processes
7. Cells may have different shapes and different
numbers of organelles, depending on their
function. Which features do plant cells have
that animal cells lack?
chloroplast, ribosome, and cell wall
Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, and vesicle
Cell wall, chloroplast, and central vacuole
Central vacuole, chloroplast, and smooth ER
Cell Processes
8. Which of these statements best explains the
process of energy conversion that takes place in the
F. Energy is required for carbon dioxide molecules to form
six-carbon sugar molecules.
G. Water molecules and radiant energy are necessary for
anaerobic respiration to take place.
H. Oxygen molecules release energy in the form of heat
during combustion reactions.
J. The energy in the bonds of glucose molecules is
transferred to the phosphate bonds in ATP.
Cell Processes
9. The illustration above shows a cell and a large particle. Many
substances, such as proteins and polysaccharides, are too large to be
transported into a cell by carrier proteins. In a process called endocytosis,
the large particle is brought into the cell.
Which of the following statements correctly summarizes this process?
A. Waste materials carry the particle into the cell.
B. The particle passes directly through a protein doorway in the cell
C. The particle passes directly through the phospholipids that make up
the cell membrane.
D. The cell membrane surrounds the particle and forms a vesicle that is
brought into the cell.
Cell Processes
10. Some levels of organization in a multicellular
organism are shown in the sequence below:
A → cells → tissues → B → organ systems → organism
Which terms represented by letters A and B would complete the
A. A–gametes; B–zygote
B. A–zygote; B–gametes
C. A–organs; B–organelles
D. A–organelles; B–organs
Cell Processes
11. In order for the human body to maintain
homeostasis, the breakdown of glucose to
release energy must be followed by the
A. production of oxygen
B. division of the cell
C. removal of wastes
D. production of receptor molecules
Cell Process
12. A single-celled organism has organelles called contractile vacuoles to move water
from inside to outside the cell. The data presented in the table above were obtained in
an experiment in which an organism was placed in water with different salt
concentrations. The rate at which the contractile vacuole contracted to pump out
excess water was recorded. How could you explain the observed relationship between
the rate of contractile vacuole contractions and the salt concentration?
A. When the salt concentration outside the cell is very high, diffusion causes water to
move inside the cell, and the contractile vacuole has to contract more rapidly.
B. When the salt concentration outside the cell is very low, diffusion causes water to
move outside the cell, but it has no impact on the contractile vacuole
C. When the salt concentration outside the cell is very high, diffusion causes water to
move outside the cell, and the contractile vacuole does not need to contract
as rapidly.
D. When the salt concentration outside the cell is very low, diffusion causes water to
move outside the cell, and the contractile vacuole does not need to contract
as rapidly.
Cell Processes
13. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable
membrane is called osmosis. Which description represents
the effects of osmosis on a plant cell when the
concentration of sugar particles is greater inside the cell
than outside?
A. Water diffuses into the cell, and the cell swells.
B. Water diffuses out of the cell, and the cell shrinks.
C. Water moves into and out of the cell at equal rates, and
cell size remains the same.
D. Water is blocked from moving into or out of the cell, and
cell size remains the same.
Cell Processes
14. Some processes that occur in a cell are listed
A. utilize energy
B. detect changes in the environment
C. rearrange and synthesize chemical compounds
Which processes will all living organisms use to
maintain homeostasis?
(A) A and B, only
(B) B and C, only
(C) C and A, only
(D) A, B, and C
Cell Processes
15. Which cellular process takes place in the
ribosomes that are bound to the endoplasmic
A The breakdown of waste material
B The conversion of radiant energy to glucose
C The synthesis of new proteins
D The replication of nucleic acids
Organic Compounds
16. Enzymes are proteins that help increase the rate of
chemical reactions inside cells. These proteins are
composed of many simpler molecules called amino
acids. Which of the following suggests that the shape
of an enzyme determines the enzyme’s function?
F. Enzymes are specific to a substrate.
G. Enzymes can operate in a wide range of conditions.
H. Enzymes are activated by neighboring molecules.
J. Enzymes can be found in all life-forms.
Organic Compounds
17. Proteins and polysaccharides are polymers. These polymers
are formed by dehydration synthesis. Which statement correctly
identifies a difference in the structure of proteins and
F Only polysaccharides are comprised of repeating units of
cytosine, adenine, guanine, and thymine.
G Only proteins are formed from amino acids joined by peptide
H Only polysaccharides can be folded and twisted to very
specific shapes.
J Only proteins can be large molecules with thousands of
Organic Compounds
18. Which of these best represents a fatty acid molecule?
Organic Compounds
19.Which group contains larger molecules that are
each assembled from smaller organic compounds?
Proteins, water, DNA, fats
Proteins, starch, carbon dioxide, water
Proteins, DNA, fats, starch
Proteins, carbon dioxide, DNA, starch
Organic Compounds
20. Based on the results of a series of experiments, Joshua created the table to
summarize some of the characteristics of the chemicals needed for life.
From this information, it can be inferred that nucleic acids ___.
are larger molecules than proteins.
are necessary for a cell to make proteins from amino acids.
do not mix with water.
can be used by cells as an energy source.
Organic Compounds
21. What term best completes this analogy?
Nucleotide is to nucleic acid as ______ is to
Amino acid
Organic Compounds
22. Which structural formula represents a polysaccharide?
Organic Compounds
23. The diagram above illustrates the structure of glucose. Which of
the following describes how the body uses molecules like the one
illustrated above?
A Sugars form carbohydrates, which are linked together to form fats
that store energy.
B Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is stored inside
the body’s cells.
C Sugars are broken down into proteins that become the building
blocks of the body’s tissues.
D Carbohydrates, such as glucose, are broken down to release
chemical energy that is used by the body’s cells.
Organic Compounds
24. Two of the four principle classes of organic
compounds are proteins and nucleic acids. What is
the relationship between proteins and nucleic
A. Nucleic acids use proteins for energy.
B. Nucleic acids are a subset of proteins.
C. Proteins are long polymers of nucleic acids.
D. Nucleic acids contain the information to make
Organic Compounds
25. Hemoglobin, insulin, and maltase are polymers
of amino acids. These are examples of –
Nucleic acids