Final Vocabulary List

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Transcript Final Vocabulary List

#1-Binomial Nomenclature
Definition: Two-word
naming system that gives all
organisms their scientific
Definition: Smallest unit of
an organism that can carry
on life functions.
#3-Cell Membrane
Definition: Protective outer
covering of all cells that
regulate the interaction
between the cell and the
#4-Cell Theory
Definition: States that all
organisms are made up of
one or more cells, the cell is
the basic unit of a life, and all
cells come from other cells.
#5-Cell Wall
Definition: Rigid structure that
encloses, supports and protects
the cells of plants, algae, fungi,
and most bacteria.
Definition: Green, chlorophyllcontaining plant-cell organelle
that captures light energy which
is used to make sugar.
Definition: Gelatin like mixture
inside the cell membrane that
contains heredity material and
is the location of most of a
cell’s life processes.
#8-Endoplasmic Reticulum
Definition: Cytoplasmic
organelle that moves materials
around in a cell and is made up
of a complex series of folded
membranes; can be rough or
Definition: First word of the
two-word scientific name
used to identify a group of
similar species.
#10-Golgi Body
Definition: Organelles that
sort and package cellular
materials and transport
them within the cell or out
of the cell.
 Definition: Ability of an organism to
keep proper internal conditions no
matter what external stimuli are
#12-Host Cell
 Definition: Living cell in which a
virus can multiply or in which a virus
can hide until activated by
environmental stimuli.
Definition: First and largest
category used to classify
Definition: Cell organelle where
food is broken down and
released as energy.
 Definition: Organelle that controls
all the activates of a cell and
contains hereditary material made
of DNA.
 Definition: Structure, such as the
heart, make up of different types of
tissues that work together.
 Definition: Structure in the
cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that
can act as a storage site, process
energy, move materials, or
manufacture substances.
Definition: Any living
#19-Organ System
Definition: A group of organs
working together to perform a
certain function.
Definition: Evolutionary history
of an organism; used to group
organisms into six kingdoms.
Definition: Small structure on
which cells make their own
Definition: Group of similar cells
that work together to do one
Definition: A strand of
hereditary material surrounded
by a protein coating.
• Definition: Energy-requiring process
in which transport proteins bind
with particles an move them
through a cell membrane.
• Definition: A type of passive
transport in cells in which molecules
move from areas where there are
more of them to an area where there
are fewer of them.
• Definition: Process by which a cell
takes in a substance by surrounding it
with the cell membrane.
• Definition: A type of protein that
regulates chemical reactions in
cells without being changed or
used up itself.
• Definition: Occurs when molecules of
one substance are spread evenly
throughout another substance.
• Definition: Process by which vesicles
release their contents outside the
• Definition: Process by which oxygen-lacking
cells and some one-celled organisms release
small amounts of energy from glucose
molecules and produce wastes such as
alcohol, carbon dioxide, and lactic acid.
• Definition: Compound that is made from
elements other than carbon whose atoms
usually can be arranged in only one
structure. (Ex. H2O)
• Definition: The total of all chemical
reactions in an organism.
• Definition: A combination of substance in
which the individual substances do not
change or combine chemically but instead
retain their own individual properties.
• Definition: Compounds that always contain
hydrogen and carbon. (Ex. Carbohydrates,
• Definition: A type of passive
transport that occurs when water
diffuses through a cell membrane.
• Definition: Movement of substances through a
cell membrane without the use of cellular
energy; diffusion and osmosis.
• Definition: Process by which plants and many
others use light energy to produce a simple
sugar from carbon dioxide and water.
• Definition: Process by which producers and
consumers release stored energy from
food molecules.
 Definition:
a type of reproduction-fission and
regeneration- in which a new organism is
produced from one organism and has DNA
identical to the parent organism.
 Definition:
Structure in the cell’s nucleus
that contains hereditary material.
 Definition:
Cell whose similar chromosomes
occur in pairs.
 Definition:
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the
genetic material of all organisms.
 Definition:
Haploid sex cell formed in the
female reproductive organs.
 Definition:
In sexual reproduction, the
joining of a sperm and egg.
 Definition:
Section of DNA on a chromosome
that contains instructions for making specific
 Definition:
Cells that have half the number
of chromosomes as body cells.
 Definition:
Productive process that produces
four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell
and ensures offspring will have the same
number of chromosomes as the parent
Cell process in which
the nucleus divides to form two
nuclei identical to each other
and the original nucleus in a
series of steps.
Any permanent
change in a gene or chromosome
of a cell.
Ribonucleic acid, a
type of nucleic acid that carries
codes for making proteins from
the nucleus to the ribosomes.
 Definition:
A type of reproduction in which
two sex cells joins to form a zygote, which
will develop into a new organism with a
unique identity.
 Definition:
Haploid sex cell formed in the
male reproductive organs.
 Definition:
A new diploid cell formed when a
sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis
and develop into a new organism.
 Definition:
An alternate form that a gene
may have for a single trait; can be
dominant or recessive
 Definition:
Describes a trait that covers
over, or dominates another form of that
#56-Genetic Engineering
 Definition:
Biological and chemical
methods to change the arrangement of a
gene’s DNA to change how cells perform
their normal functions.
 Definition:
The study of how traits are
inherited through the actions of alleles.
 Definition:
The genetic makeup of an
 Definition:
The passing of traits from parent
to offspring.
#60- Heterozygous
Describes an
organism with two different
alleles for a trait.
Describes an
organism with two alleles that
are the same for a trait.
An offspring that was
given different genetic
information for a trait from
each parent.
 Definition:
#63-Incomplete Dominance
Production of a
phenotype that is intermediate
between the two homozygous
Outward physical
appearance and behavior of
an organism as a result of its
#65-Polygenic Inheritance
Occurs when a
group of gene pairs acts
together and produces a
specific trait, such as eye color,
skin color, or height.
#66-Punnett Square
A tool to predict the
probability of certain traits in
offspring that shows the
different ways alleles can
Describes a trait that
is covered over, or dominated,
by another form of that trait
and seems to disappear.
#68-Sex-Linked Gene
 Definition:
An allele inherited on a
sex chromosome and can cause
human genetic disorders such as
color blindness.