Christian humanists - Warren County Schools

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Transcript Christian humanists - Warren County Schools

The Northern Renaissance
•By the 1400s, the Renaissance had spread to Northern
Europe – especially England, France, Germany, and
Christian Humanism
 Christian humanism - the belief that human freedom,
individual conscience, and rational inquiry are
compatible with the practice of Christianity.
It represents a philosophical union of Christian faith and
humanist principles.
 While Renaissance humanists stressed science and
sensuality, Christian humanists used the principles of
classical learning to focus on biblical studies, theology,
and the importance of individual conscience, which
laid the foundations of the Protestant Reformation.
•Emphasized - human
dignity, beauty, and
•Reacted against the
religious authority of
the Catholic Church
•Valued - earthly
•Focus on - biblical
studies and the
importance of
individual conscience
•Valued - earthly
existence in combination
with the Christian faith
Thomas More
1478 – 1535
University of Oxford
Christian Humanist
•Utopia (1516)
•Book about imaginary land where greed,
corruption, and war have been weeded out.
•Little use for money
•Goal: social and political equality for all
•Helped King Henry VIII write Defence of the Seven Sacraments, a
rejection of Luther, and wrote an answer to Luther's reply under a
•He didn’t agree with the King’s divorce of Katherine of Aragon.
Resigned, claiming “ill health,” but most likely didn’t agree with
King’s stance on the Church.
•More's final words: "The King's good servant, but God's First."
•Christian Humanist
•Catholic Priest
•called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists“
•Prepared new Latin and Greek editions of New
•Believed in reforming the Catholic Church
•Played role in Reformation
Italian Sculptor & Painter
 1475–1564, Florence
 One of the leading artists
of the Renaissance
 Lived with the Medici
family - met many
leading thinkers, artists,
and writers.
 Sculpting and Painting
 combines
Renaissance ideals of
beauty with emotional
Albrecht Dürer
German Artist
 1471–1528, Germany
 Fashionable, confident, and
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
intellectual, he studied
goldsmithing, painting,
printmaking, math, Latin, and
classical literature and sculpture.
He traveled and met humanists.
 blended detailed German
painting with Italian techniques
of perspective and idealized
 talent for engravings and
 He painted religious figures,
myths, self-portraits, and court
The Printing Press
•History of Book Making:
2700 BC
Egyptians write books on
papyrus scrolls
1000 BC
Chinese made
books by writing
on strips of
300 AD
Romans write on
sheets of treated
animal skins
800 AD
Irish monks
hand-write and
•1440 AD – Johann Gutenberg invented the Printing Press in Mainz, Germany
•Made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply
•Printed the Gutenberg Bible in 1455
What type of books do you think were
produced first?
Answer: Religious works first, then other subjects like
travel guides and medical manuals
About how many books could a
printing press produce in a month?
Answer: About 100
What were the major effects of
the invention of the printing
Answer: It made
books readily
available and cheap
enough for people to
How long did it really take??
1. Get with a partner and pick one person to be the scribe and
another to be the time keeper.
2. The scribe will copy the following paragraph while the time
keeper times how long it takes:
The Gutenberg press with its wooden and later metal
movable type printing brought down the price of printed
materials and made such materials available for the masses. It
remained the standard until the 20th century. The Gutenberg
printing press developed from the technology of the screwtype wine presses of the Rhine Valley. It was there in 1440
that Johannes Gutenberg created his printing press, a hand
press, in which ink was rolled over the raised surfaces of
moveable hand-set block letters held within a wooden form
and the form was then pressed against a sheet of paper.
How long would it take you to
copy a whole page?
(About 4 paragraphs)
How long would it take you to
copy a entire book?
(About 250 pages)
What was one way the Renaissance changed
•Changes in the Arts:
•Art drew on techniques and styles of classical Greece and Rome
•Paintings and sculptures portrayed individuals and nature in more
realistic and lifelike ways (Realism)
•Artists created works that were secular as well as those that were
•The arts praised individual achievement
•Changes in Society
•Printing changed society by making more information available and
inexpensive enough for society at large
•A greater availability of books prompted an increased desire for
learning and a rise in literacy throughout Europe
•Published accounts of new discoveries, maps, and charts led to
further discoveries in a variety of fields
•Published legal proceedings made the laws clear so that people were
more likely to understand their rights
•Christian humanists’ attempts to reform society changed views
about how life should be lived
•People began to question political structures and religious practices