The Renaissance Spirit in Italy Chapter 8

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Transcript The Renaissance Spirit in Italy Chapter 8

The Renaissance in Italy
The Italian City-states
Italy conduit for travel and commerce
between Europe and East
Cities independent from kings and popes
Merchant princes
Medici family--powerful banking family
Charitable to arts
Civic humanism
Renaissance Humanism
Humans God greatest creation
Humanist: student of classical ideas
Glorified beauty and order in nature
Pico’s Oration: man had choice of
goodness or evil in himself
Great reformers, artists, writers, inventors.
Lorenzo “The Magnificent”
1462-92. Patron of the arts
Praised Plato; civic leader; poet
Wrote songs in Italian
Gave money and support to artists in
Had many libraries, museums and palaces
built for Florence
Ghiberti’s Baptistery Doors
Competition for Baptistery Doors--1401
Ghiberti and Brunelleschi--Abraham and
Ghiberti won-- Classical style;48 years!
Michelangelo: “Gates of Paradise”
Story of Jacob & Esau: optical
Brunelleschi’s Domes
Florence’s greatest Renaissance architect
Studied Rome’s ancient buildings
Domed roof over cathedral altar
Simplicity and reason
Pazzi Chapel--Roman architecture
Attempt by Pazzi on Lorenzo’s life in
Florentine Painting: A Refined
Life-like figures, volume and perspective.
Fresco technique
Masaccio-- depth through modeling and
atmospheric effects
The Tribute Money--chiaroscuro
Atmospheric and linear perspective
Sandro Botticelli
La Primavera blending of mythology and
Adoration of the Magi honored the Medici
patrons. Includes himself in painting
Classical ruins anachronistic
Italian Renaissance Music
The Mass
Sacred motets in Latin
secular song
Guillaume Dufay--monody
Heinrich Isaac
Polyphonic songs: frottola and madrigal
Maddalena Casulana
Brought back the free-standing nude:
Used contrapposto
Biblical description of David: adolescent
Tuscan hat
Pagan (classical) rather than Christian
Michelangelo in Florence
By age 22 already rival to Donatello
In Rome: Pieta
Florence’s David: classical values with a
biblical theme
Captured his spirit/ hero in stone
The Decline of Florence
Appealed to poor and working people
Condemned Church’s corruption and
excesses of wealth
“Bonfire of the Vanities”
Defeated and burned at the stake
Message affected artists
Machiavelli’s The Prince
Florentine diplomat--described realities of
political philosophy and power
The Prince masterpiece of political
philosophy. Realistic
Describes the ideal prince or ruler: only
strong, ruthless leaders keep country safe
from foreign domination
Machiavellian: end justifies means
The Genius of Leonardo
Arts, sciences, engineering, mathematics
Not true to only one patron/ruler
Restless, inquisitive
True genius
Leonardo as Scientist
Notebooks: Mirror writing
Tanks, submarines, airplane
Lacked propulsion
Leonardo as Painter
The Last Supper
Madonna of the Rocks
Classical triangle composition:
Mona Lisa
Painting: the highest art
The Renaissance Man…and
Leonardo: Renaissance man
Baldassare Castiglione: Universal man
Isabella d’Este Educated, cultured,
refined tastes. Patroness of the arts; ruled
her city in husband’s absence
Patronage of the Renaissance
Wealthy church officials and families
employed artists for beauty and
entertainment: contracts
Popes and princes: Julius II and Leo X
Sometimes there were problems between
patrons and artists
Josquin des Prez: Composer
High Renaissance
Leo X meditated in the Sistine Chapel
listening to the choir of a cappella
Male musicians; girls had to have
private lessons or attend a convent
Greatest composer of High
Match between words and music,
complex polyphony: word painting and
Julius II: apartments in the Vatican:
Known for his Madonnas
School of Athens
Aristotle and Plato in center
Portraits of contemporary figures
Michelangelo front center figure
Raphael buried in Pantheon. Only artist to
be buried there.
Michelangelo in Rome
1505 Pope Julius II ordered Michelangelo
to Rome to build his tomb
Captives: soul striving to break free from
Tomb unfinished. Moses embodies
Michelangelo’s temper: terribilita
Mature man
Sistine Chapel Ceiling
1508: Julius asked Michelangelo to paint
Used Old Testament as prophecy of
Christ’s coming
Combines classical and Christian ideas,
tension between spirit and flesh
Muscular energy
Confident colors
The New St. Peter’s
Last years devoted to architecture
Old basilica demolished and modernized
150 years to complete
Greek Cross floor plan Michelangelo’s
design seen only from the rear
Conflict between 12 architects and 22
Limited funds in Vatican
An Age of Giants
Why such concentration of talent in Italy?
Cultural center of beauty and learning
Triumph of the human spirit