Transcript The Renaissance
What effect do you think the
Black Death had on the feudal system?
The Black Death: Effects
• food prices drop (less mouths to feed) /
survivors wine and dine
• peasant farmers and workers able to make more
money because nobles were in need of extra hands
• peasants revolt sometimes and win better conditions
• nobles gradually losing power, kings gain more
Jacob Burckhardt (historian): points to Italy as the home
of the Renaissance.
The Renaissance removes medieval “veil” which
prevented development of the individual
• feudalism replaced early - castles/lords replaced by towns and cities and
their rich, powerful merchants.
• center of trade: surrounded by seas
• serfdom breaks down early - free peasants work for wage labor - money &
commerce happen in the countryside now too
• Rich and powerful merchants became
patrons of the arts.
• Example: The Medici Family
People interested in here & now, less in
religion or the world beyond
They are still Christians, they are just upset about
medieval ideas of the church
Want to use ideas to solve the problems of this world. Get
their ideas from ancient texts.
• New interest in the classical learning of ancient
Greece and Rome.
• Passion for writing, poetry, history, Latin & Greek
(as opposed to only studying law or the Bible)
• learning is essential to creating a better, moral human being
• to be active in life is important - be good in the here & now
• individualism - emphasizing the value of each person.
Individuals should pursue goals and desires. Individuals
prove what they are capable of through art, science,
philosophy, music, etc.
What reading strategies have you used in the past?
What reading strategies did you find the most helpful?
What about reading still frustrates you?
1. Who wrote the text? When? Who is the intended
2. Underline / highlight key words and phrases as you
3. Make annotations in the margin if the reading
triggers other thoughts (does it connect to
something else you have learned? Do you have
questions about the material?)
4. Explain what you have read to someone else.
Using the reading from this weekend, complete the
worksheet on secular humanism in the Renaissance.
Does your underlining, highlighting, starring, and/or
note-taking help you answer these questions?
Think about cultural items
(art / music / fashion / books / TV
shows, etc.) that you like.
Is it different than what your parents,
or other adults, like?
In what ways?
Humanism & Art
• What does “secular humanism” mean?
• How are people depicted differently in
• How did the landscape change in the
background of paintings?
• How did mathematical formulas help
• What did oil paint do for artists?
Humanism & Art
You and a partner will work as art historians today.
Every time a work of art is displayed, talk to each
other about it. Try to answer the questions provided
each time. Use paper and pen if necessary…
Madonna and Child in Glory (1360/65), by Jacopa di Cione
tempera and gold on panel
What do you notice above the heads?
What do you observe about the size (scale) of the figures?
Vocab for your notes…
Scale - the size of things in relation to
each other. (in the Middle Ages, bigger
items were more important ones)
Miraculous Mass of Martin of Tours (circa 1440),
the Franconian School
tempera and gold on canvas on panel
What is different in the background compared to what you just saw?
Does St. Martin wear a halo? How is he compared to other items in scale?
There are other saints in the background of this painting.
Do the surroundings look true to life? Why?
Madonna and Child with St. John (1510), by Giuliano Bugiardini
oil on panel
Do these figures wear halos? Are the halos different than the last two paintings?
What is the landscape around them? Heavenly or earthly?
Oil paint allows light to shine through, make the art more believable.
Does this painting look more believable than the first?
Vocab for your notes
Landscape - natural scenery (trees, rocks, rivers,
lakes, mountains, sky, clouds)
Adoration of the Shepherds (1510), by Giovanni da Lodi
oil on panel
Shown are the holy family of Mary, Joseph and baby Jesus, with shepherds and an angel
playing a lute. What do you think of the scale of the figures?
• What makes this seem like it is done with oil paint?
Adoration of the Magi (1550/60), by The Kress Monnogrammist
oil on oak panel
• Do the buildings in the background look true to life? Why or why not?
• Paintings that represent space in a believable way have accurate perspective.
• How does perspective here compare to Miraculous Mass of St. Martin of Tours?
• Are there any halos? What about scale? Where is there landscape? Oil or tempera?
• Can you tell who are the ordinary people and who are the saints?
Vocab for your notes…
Perspective (in painting) - creating the illusion of
three-dimensional space in a painting or drawing.
Mathematical formulas used to create depth.
The Bean Eater (1582/83), Annibale Carracci
oil on canvas
Can you tell if the man in this painting is a saint?
• Oil or tempera? How can you tell?
Renaissance humanism can be found in not only
visual art, but in other works as well.
For tonight, complete this worksheet on
Humanism in Renaissance literature.
- Review last night’s homework with a neighbor
- What can we learn about humanism from
influencing other people within a community in an
(for example, with a government and laws)
an organized community under one government
• South Africa
• United Kingdom
• United States
Italian Politics in the
• Italy made up of
sometimes at war with
• factions of both nobles
and non-nobles fighting
each other for power
within these cities /
often gets violent
Italy, circa 1494
• what do you think it is
like to live there?
“Is it better to be loved than
feared, or feared than
loved? A prince should
perhaps wish to be both, but
since that is hard to
accomplish, it is much safer
to be feared than loved.”
- Niccolo Machiavelli, 1513
Explain what Machiavelli
might mean by this…
We will read and analyze an excerpt
from The Prince together.
You should be looking for…
• elements of humanism
• ideas on politics
PRACTICAL - concerned with the work at hand. Is it
CYNICAL - no trust for the motives of others.
Without morals or honesty
MORAL - concerned with rules of conduct, and the
difference between right and wrong
Pair with a neighbor to answer the
questions on the handout.
More examples of
The Last Supper, by Leonardo Da Vinci (1498)
Mona Lisa, by Leonardo Da Vinci (1503/1506)
The School of Athens, by Raphael (1509)
The Money Lender and His Wife, by Quentin Metsys (1514)
The Wedding Dance, by Pieter Bruegel (1566)
On a separate piece of paper…
- List three ways that art changed during
- In 3-5 sentences, explain how one of these
changes could explain larger changes in
Write down 3 suggestions for yourself on
how to be more active in the pursuit of
Some people have become experts in several different subject
In the Renaissance, there were several of these great thinkers:
• Leonardo da Vinci
• Michelangelo Buonarotti
• Galileo Galilei
• Nicolaus Copernicus
• Francis Bacon
These people embodied the notion in the Renaissance that “a
man can do all things if he will.”
Baldassare Castiglione wrote The Book of the Courtier (1528): a
guidebook on how to be a Renaissance Man
This person should have a detached, cool, nonchalant
attitude (“sprezzatura”), and
• speak well,
• recite poetry
• be athletic
• know the humanities and classics
• paint and draw
• not brag!
Leonardo Da Vinci
Watch this video from BBC
• I now know that…
• I learned…
• I was reminded of…
• I was surprised to learn that…
• I feel _______ because I now know…
• I’ve revisited an old idea about…
• “Pass” with a return for comment
• “Piggy back” on someone else’s comment (but add my own)