The Renaissance 1350 –1550 AD

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Transcript The Renaissance 1350 –1550 AD

The Renaissance
1350 –1550 AD
With emphasis on religion,
society, education, warfare, art,
and invention
General Information
• Means “rebirth” in French
• Originally an Italian phenomenon, but
eventually spreads to the rest of Europe
• Comes at the end of the Middle (Dark)
Ages (500 AD to 1500 AD)
General Information
• The Middle Ages (Medieval Times) the
period following the Roman Era
• Europe saw little progress in technology,
art, culture due to constant fighting
between former Roman provinces and the
Germans or Vikings
General Information
• The Renaissance represented a rebirth of
culture, art, and invention
• Renaissance starts in Italy with an interest
in ancient Roman culture
• Believed excellence could be achieved by
studying the Roman empire
General Information
• Renaissance begins in the city of Florence
• Italy at the time was divided into several
competing areas, such as Milan, Florence,
Venice, and the Papal States
• Fighting between the cities nearly lead to
their unification
General Information
• Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan,
attempted to unify Italy
• Gained control of Northern Italy, but dies
of illness before he could capture the south
• Rivalry between the cities actually
stimulated growth and accomplishment
Feudal Society
• European society based on Feudalism – a
patron/client relationship
• Patrons were known as lords, and the
clients were called vassals
• Relationship was necessary for protection
from Viking and German invaders
Feudal Society
• Vikings and Germans who had ended the
Roman Empire continued to plague other
• Castles were built for protection, and lords
demanded compensation for providing
Feudal Society
• Payment for protection was usually taken
in the form of money or crops
• As time went on, payment increased and
many peasants could not afford to pay the
• Lords then forced these peasants to become
Feudal Society
• Serfs were peasants who worked either for
the lord on his land or gave almost all of
their wage (crop) to the lord
• As the cycle continued, it became nearly
impossible for serfs to repay their lord
Feudal Society
• Population was wiped out by the “Black
– Two Plagues: Bubonic and Pneumonic
– Transmitted by fleas that lived on rats
– Result of poor removal of waste and general
dirtiness of Medieval cities
– Killed 20 million Europeans
Feudal Society
• Feudal Classes
Noblemen and Knights
Renaissance Education
• New method of learning – Humanism
• Contrary to Scholasticism – the method of
the ancient Greeks and Romans
• Purpose to create well-rounded individuals
who could succeed in any situation
• Only for wealthy noble children
Renaissance Education
• Main subject is History
• Students were also taught eloquence, read
original Roman texts, and learned moral
• Tried to model Roman virtues and values
Notable Humanists
• Petrarch – 1st Humanist
– Compiled and critiqued ancient texts
– 1st to make a living from writing
– Invented the Sonnet (Lyrical poetry of 14
– Also wrote an epic poem
Notable Humanists
• Leonardi Bruni
– Translated Aristotle into Latin
– Claimed Florence was the living example of
the Roman Empire
• Poggio
– 1st Archaeologist (Study humans through
remains), starts digs in Rome
Notable Humanists
• Lorenzo Valla
– Wrote the Treatise on the Donation of
– Claimed that Constantine upon his death had
given the Western Empire to the Pope
– Treatise was later proven to be inaccurate and
that the Pope did not have control of the
Western Empire
Protestant Reformation
• Renaissance also sparked religious changes
• Protestant religion formed during this time
as a result of the teachings of Martin
• Martin Luther protested against the
Roman Catholic Church
Protestant Reformation
• Martin Luther was a German
monk who broke away from
the Catholic Church
Disagreed with Indulgences
Believed one could be justified
just by faith
Nails the 95 Theses to the door
of the Cathedral in Wittenberg,
Protestant Reformation
• 95 Theses was a list of complaints against
the Roman Catholic Church
• Luther’s work was continued by John
Calvin, who later had his own religious
• Today’s Protestant religions would not
exist without Calvin and Luther
Anglican Reformation
• Religious reformation also occurred in
England, only the split came because of a
difference in who should rule, not religious
• King Henry VIII of England separated his
country from the Pope and created his own
Anglican Reformation
• Henry VIII creates the Anglican Church
(Church of England) and therefore
combines the power of King with that of
• Henry left behind an interesting legacy and
a deep impact on the world
Henry VIII
Henry comes to the throne after the death of his brother
Pope allows Henry to marry his dead brother’s wife, Catherine of
Catherine produced only one girl, Mary, so Henry tries to divorce
her. Pope will not grant the divorce, so Henry separates and creates
his own church
Henry marries Anne Boleyn, who gives birth to Elizabeth
Anne Boleyn executed for not bearing a son, and Henry marries
Jane Seymour
Jane gives birth to Edward, then soon dies
Henry VIII
Following Jane’s death, Henry’s advisor, Oliver Cromwell, finds
him a German princess, Anne of Cleves
Anne of Cleves not very attractive, so Henry sends her back to
Germany without consummation of the marriage
Henry then marries Catherine Howard. Henry gets tired of her,
so he claims she committed adultery and has her executed
Final wife was Catherine Parr, who outlives Henry
Henry’s son, Edward, who was frail and ill, died before Henry
did, leaving “Bloody Mary” and future Queen Elizabeth
Inventions and Discoveries
• Renaissance saw many advances in
technology, such as
Flushing Toilets
Magnifying Devices
Printing Press
Inventions and Discoveries
• Nicolaus Copernicus discovers that the
Earth orbits the Sun, not the other way
• Creation of the Scientific Method
• Galileo Galilei modifies the telescope,
becomes the first modern astronomer, and
the theory of gravity by dropping items off
the Leaning Tower of Pisa
Leonardo Da Vinci 1452-1519
True “Renaissance Man”
Inventor, Painter,
Scientist, Doctor,
Mathematician, Writer
First to study anatomy,
fascinated by flight, and
decent painter
“Mona Lisa” and “Last
Medieval Warfare
• Open field battles used Roman techniques
• Castles, walls, and fortifications were built to
protect from Viking and German invasions
• Castles were fortified with thick stone walls,
moats, canon, archers, catapults (trebuchet),
boiling pots of water and metal, along with
garrisons of knights
Medieval Warfare
The goal of the attacking
army would be to either
starve the castle out or
penetrate one wall
Invaders would use
boarding ladders, battering
rams, catapults, and canon
to attempt to gain access
Medieval Warfare
• Medieval Knight
Heavily armored (steel) over chain mail
Mounted on horse back, also armored
Would carry a lance, shield, and long sword
Knights might also have knives, spears, mace, axes,
or battle hammers
Only noblemen or very wealthy could afford to be
knights – had to pay for their own equipment
Renaissance Arts
• Renaissance also saw an explosion of painting,
sculpting, music, and writing
• Michaelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel
• Da Vinci paints Mona Lisa and Last Supper
• Music
Gregorian Chant
Renaissance Arts
Renaissance Arts
Renaissance Arts
• Writers
Dante – The Divine Comedy (Religion)
Machiavelli – The Prince (Government)
Shakespeare – Countless sonnets and
plays, greatest writer of all time
Geoffrey Chaucer – The Canterbury
The End of the Renaissance?
• Our modern lifestyle and thinking come from the
Renaissance and the following time period, the
• During this time of rebirth, society began to
improve and advance once again
• The culture, art, religion, and intellectual
advances still carry importance today
Wives of Henry VIII
Catherine of
Anne of Cleves
Catherine Howard
Anne Boleyn
Jane Seymour
Catherine Parr