Protein Creation Pathway

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Transcript Protein Creation Pathway

Protein Creation Pathway
Place your keyboard aside. Only use your mouse
click on the NUCLEUS to begin the tutorial
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The Nucleus
The nucleus (flashing circle) is
nicknamed the “control center”
of a cell. But why? The
nucleus contains DNA in its
active form and this DNA will
ultimately be used as a
blueprint to create proteins for
use throughout the body. The
process of creating a protein
begins in the nucleus.
Click the arrow to zoom inside
and view a nucleus.
See the dark spot inside the
nucleus? This is the nucleolus.
Give it a click.
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Nucleolus
The Nucleolus
The nucleolus is a dense
region within the
nucleus. This organelle
(tiny cell part) is
responsible for creating
thousands of ribosomes.
Ribosomes play an
important role in the
creation of proteins as
we will see later.
Click the Nucleolus to see
an artists drawing.
Nucleus
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The Nucleolus
The nucleolus is a dense
region within the
nucleus. This organelle
(tiny cell part) is
responsible for creating
thousands of ribosomes.
Ribosomes play an
important role in the
creation of proteins as
we will see later.
Monosaccharides
makes complex
sugars
Fatty acids make
lipids
Nucleotides make
nucleic acids
These organelles are 3-dimensional. But they often look flat when viewed through a microscope. To
proceed, answer the question below.
What are the monomers of a protein called?
monosaccharide
Fatty acid
Nucleotide
Amino acid
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Ribosomes
Correct! Amino acids make
proteins.
By far, the ribosomes are the
most numerous of all
organelles. Remember, they
are created by the nucleolus.
After exiting the nucleus they
themselves are responsible
for the production of proteins
within the cell. Because they
are so small, they resemble
tiny dots in this picture.
After they exit the nucleus, they
are often attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
Click HERE to see the ER and
attached ribosomes.
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Ribosomes
There is something
else inside the nucleus
that makes the
ribosomes
Ribosomes travel
along the rough
ER. They are not
created here.
By far, the ribosomes are the
most numerous of all
organelles. Remember, they
are created by the nucleolus.
After exiting the nucleus they
themselves are responsible
for the production of proteins
within the cell. Because they
are so small, they resembles
tiny dots in this picture.
After they exit the nucleus, the
ribosomes are often attached
to the endoplasmic reticulum
(ER).
Let’s review. Which organelle
creates the ribosomes?
nucleus
nucleolus
Rough ER
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
back
Correct! The nucleolus makes
ribosomes.
Ribosomes are created by the
nucleolus and then exit the
nucleus. As they exit the
nucleus, they begin to create
proteins through a process called
translation.
The rough ER is called “rough”
because it is covered with
ribosomes. The rough ER is
basically a tunnel system to
move ribosomes to other parts of
the cell. In this sense, you can
compare the rough ER to a
subway, and the passengers are
the ribosomes.
Click to see the rough ER.
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
back
Ribosomes are created by the
nucleolus and then exit the
nucleus. As they exit the
nucleus, they begin to create
proteins through a process called
translation.
The rough ER is called “rough”
because it is covered with
ribosomes. The rough ER is
basically a tunnel system to
move ribosomes to other parts of
the cell. In this sense, you can
compare the rough ER to a
subway, and the passengers are
the ribosomes.
Since the ribosomes exit the
nucleus and flow into the rough
ER, the rough ER is attached to
the outside of the nucleus.
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
See the dots? Those are the ribosomes.
back
Ribosomes are created by the
nucleolus and then exit the
nucleus. As they exit the
nucleus, they begin to create
proteins through a process called
translation.
The rough ER is called “rough”
because it is covered with
ribosomes. The rough ER is
basically a tunnel system to
move ribosomes to other parts of
the cell. In this sense, you can
compare the rough ER to a
subway, and the passengers are
the ribosomes.
Since the ribosomes exit the
nucleus and flow into the rough
ER, the rough ER is attached to
the outside of the nucleus.
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
See the dots? Those are the ribosomes.
back
Ribosomes are created by the
nucleolus and then exit the
nucleus. As they exit the
nucleus, they begin to create
proteins through a process called
translation.
The rough ER is called “rough”
because it is covered with
ribosomes. The rough ER is
basically a tunnel system to
move ribosomes to other parts of
the cell. In this sense, you can
compare the rough ER to a
subway, and the passengers are
the ribosomes.
Since the ribosomes exit the
nucleus and flow into the rough
ER, the rough ER is attached to
the outside of the nucleus.
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
We need to review before we go further.
back
Ribosomes are created by the
nucleolus and then exit the
nucleus. As they exit the
nucleus, they begin to create
proteins through a process called
translation.
The rough ER is called “rough”
because it is covered with
ribosomes. The rough ER is
basically a tunnel system to
move ribosomes to other parts of
the cell. In this sense, you can
compare the rough ER to a
subway, and the passengers are
the ribosomes.
Since the ribosomes exit the
nucleus and flow into the rough
ER, the rough ER is attached to
the outside of the nucleus.
back
Let’s Review
Which step happens first? Click the correct sentence.
How can
ribosomes exit if
they haven’t
been created
yet?
1st? -- The ribosomes exit the nucleus
1st? -- The ribosomes begin to make proteins as they travel along the rough ER.
1st? -- The nucleolus creates ribosomes
Correct! Good
job!
How can
ribosomes
make proteins
if they haven’t
been created
yet?
Click which happens next.
1st = The nucleolus creates ribosomes
back
Correct!
2nd? -- The ribosomes exit the nucleus
2nd? -- The ribosomes begin to make proteins as they travel along the rough ER.
How can
ribosomes
travel the ER if
they haven’t
exited the
nucleus yet?
Watch the animation. Then click the final step.
back
1st step: The nucleolus creates ribosomes
2nd step: The ribosomes exit the nucleus
3rd?? -- The ribosomes begin to make proteins as they travel along the rough ER.
Well it was the
final choice. I
hope you got it
correct.
Watch!
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Remember, we are tracing the path of protein creation.
1st step: The nucleolus creates ribosomes
2nd step: The ribosomes exit the nucleus
3rd step: The ribosomes begin to make proteins as they travel along
the rough ER.
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Protein Functions
Remember, the ribosomes were
traveling along the rough ER while
making proteins. Proteins are used
in a wide variety of cell activities,
such as growing hair, carrying
oxygen, and digesting foods. Many
proteins are created by one cell, but
needed by another. Therefore many
proteins need to be exported. That’s
the job of the Golgi Body (named
after Camillo Golgi). Click the arrow
to see the Golgi Bodies.
The Golgi body receives the proteins that
were created by the ribosomes. The
Golgi body packages the protein inside a
protective envelope called a vesicle.
Doesn’t the Golgi body resemble a stack
of pancakes?
Ribosomes travel along
the rough ER, but aren’t
made here.
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Vesicles
Vesicles float away from the Golgi
body with finished proteins
inside. The proteins are released
from the cell and are used
throughout the body.
Let’s do some review. Use your
worksheet to help you with the
answers.
Golgi body
packages proteins
1) Which organelle creates
ribosomes?
Vesicles move
finished proteins
Ribosomes are
made inside the
nucleus by
something else
Ribosomes create
themselves?
vesicle
Golgi body
nucleus
Rough ER
ribosome
Nucleolus
Review #2
back
Correct! The nucleolus creates ribosomes.
Which organelle transports the ribosomes from the nucleus to
the Golgi body?
Vesicles protein
finished proteins
The nucleus
holds DNA
Ribosomes make
proteins
vesicle
Golgi body
nucleus
Rough ER
ribosome
Nucleolus
Golgi body
packages proteins
The nucleolus
makes ribosomes
back
Review #3
Correct! The rough ER transports the ribosomes .
Which organelle creates proteins?
Vesicles protein
finished proteins
The nucleus
holds DNA
vesicle
Golgi body
nucleus
Rough ER
ribosome
nucleolus
The Golgi body
packages proteins
The rough ER
transports ribosomes
around the cell
The nucleolus
makes ribosomes
back
Review #4
Correct! Ribosomes make proteins.
Which organelle packages finalized proteins for shipment?
Vesicles protein
finished proteins
The nucleus
holds DNA
The ribosome
makes proteins
vesicle
Golgi body
nucleus
Rough ER
ribosome
Nucleolus
The rough ER
transports ribosomes
around the cell
The nucleolus
makes ribosomes
back
Review #5
Correct! The Golgi body packages finalized proteins for
shipment.
Which organelle protects a finished protein as it exits the cell?
The nucleus
holds DNA
Ribosomes make
proteins
vesicle
Golgi body
nucleus
Rough ER
ribosome
Nucleolus
The Golgi body
packages proteins
The rough ER
transports ribosomes
around the cell
The nucleolus
makes ribosomes
back
Review #6
Golgi body
Correct! The vesicle protects
a finished protein as it
exits the cell
Now click on the nucleolus.
Rough ER
Mitochondria
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Review #7
Flagella
Correct! That was the
nucleolus.
Now click on the Golgi
body…remember
pancakes?
Rough ER
Mitochondria
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Review #8
Golgi body
Correct! That was the Golgi
body.
Now click on the rough ER.
Nucleolus
Mitochondria
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Review #9
Nucleolus
Correct that was the rough
ER!
Now click on the organelle
that packages proteins for
shipment outside of the
cell.
Rough ER
Mitochondria
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Review #10
Golgi body
Correct! That was the Golgi
body.
Now click on the organelle
that creates ribosomes.
Rough ER
Mitochondria
back
Correct! That was the nucleolus.
I hope this tutorial was helpful. This will be posted on my
website for you to review at any time. Turn in your handout.
Feel free to start over if you would like to do some review.