Feed Nutrients

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Transcript Feed Nutrients

Feed Nutrients
.
Objectives
Identify sources of nutrients and classes
of feeds related to the ruminant and
non-ruminant animals
Describe sources of nutrients and
classes of feeds related to the ruminant
and non-ruminant animals
Objectives:
– Identify major functions of basic nutrient
groups and feeds that are sources for
each.
Nutrients
A chemical element or compound that
aids in the support of life.
Necessary for cells to live, grow, and
function properly.
Many needed and must be in the proper
balance
Lack of one or more nutrients will slow
growth
5 Groups of Nutrients
Energy Nutrients (carbohydrates, fats,
and oils)
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Energy Nutrients Carbohydrates
Main energy function
Made up of sugars, starches, cellulose,
and lignin
Chemically composed of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen
Energy powers muscular movement
Produce body heat
Extra Carbs are stored as fat
Simple and Complex
Carbohydrates
Simple
Sugars and
Starches
Referred as nitrogen
free extract (nfe)
Come from cereal
grains (corn, etc)
Complex
Cellulose and lignin
Called Fiber
More difficult to
digest
Found mostly in
roughages (hay,
grass)
Fiber Content of Feeds
Simple stomached animals can not
digest large amounts of fiber, and their
ration must be made up of mostly cereal
grains.
Ruminant animals can eat large
amounts of fiber, and a high percentage
of their ration is roughage
Energy Nutrients Fats and Oils
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen, but contain more carbon and
hydrogen atoms than carbohydrates
For this reason fats have 2.25 times as
much energy value than carbohydrates
Fats are solid at body temperature
Oils are liquid at body temperature
Fats and Oils
They are easily digested in the animal
Provide energy and body heat
Carry fat-soluble vitamins
Come from both vegetable and animal
sources
Vegetable fat ranges from 1.8 to 4.4 %
Animal fat ranges from 1 to 10.6 %
Crude Protein
Total Protein
Not all is digested
60% in ruminant rations is digested
75% in non-ruminant rations is digested
Digestible Protein- amount of true
protein in the feed
Proteins
Organic compounds made up of amino
acids
Contain: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and
nitrogen. Some may contain sulphur,
phosphorus, and iron
Supply materials to build body tissue
(ligaments, hair, hooves, skin, organs,
and muscle are partially formed by
protein)
Nutrients
If an animal takes in more protein than
needed, nitrogen is separated and given off
as urine
The material left is then is then converted into
energy or body fat
Essential amino acids - needed by the animal
and the animal can’t produce the amino acid
Non - Essential amino acids - needed by the
animal but are synthesized from other amino
acids.
Non-Essential Amino Acids
Needed by animals but synthesized in
the body from another amino acids
there for do not need to be provided in
the ration
Amino Acids in Ruminant and
Non- Ruminant Animals
Non-ruminant animals can not
synthesize the essential amino acids
fast enough to meet the animals needs
therefore those essential amino acids
must be provided in the ration
Ruminant animals generally synthesize
the essential amino acids by the rumen
at a rate to meet the needs of the
animal
Sources of Protein
Animal source protein are considered
good-quality proteins since they contain
a good balance of essential amino acids
Plant proteins are thought to be poorquality proteins because they lack some
amino acids
Proteins in Ruminants
Can be met by feeding proteins of
vegetable sources
Also by feeding urea (synthetic nitrogen
source made from air, water and
carbon)
Urea is mixed with the ration to to
provide nitrogen for making amino acids
in the ruminants body
Proteins in
Simple Stomached Animals
Need to feed balanced ration with the
right balance of essential amino acids
If grains are combined in the correct
combination they will provide a
balanced ration.
Soybean meal is most commonly used
Protein Sources
Plant
Linseed meal
Dehulled soybean
meal
Cottonseed meal
Dehydrated alfalfa
meal
Animal
Meat meal
Fish meal
Dried whey
Casein
Dried Milk
Vitamins
Trace organic compounds or needed in
small amounts
All vitamins contain carbon
Two types of vitamins: Fat soluble and
Water soluble
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Dissolved in fat
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Vitamin A - associated with healthy
eyes, good conception rate, and
disease resistance
Vitamin D - assoc. with good bone
development and mineral balance of the
blood
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin E - associated with normal
reproduction and muscle development
Can also help immune system
Vitamin K - Helps with blood clotting
and prevents excessive bleeding from
injuries
Sources of Fat Soluble
Vitamins
Green leafy hay
Yellow Corn
Cod Liver
Fish Oils
Wheat Oil
Vitamin D is produced in the body when
sunlight is present
Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin C - Helps teeth and bone
formation and prevents infections
Vitamin B complex - needed for
chemical reactions in the body and help
improve appetite, growth and
reproduction
Sources of Water Soluble
Vitamins
Vitamin C is found in green pastures
and also farm animals can produce
enough vitamin C in their body
Vitamin B complex sources- green
pastures, cereal grains, hay, milk, fish
solubles, and animal proteins
Minerals
Needed in small amounts
Contain NO Carbon (if the feed was
burned the ash left would be minerals)
Provide material for growth of bones,
teeth, tissue, regulate chemical
processes, aid in muscular activities,
and release energy for body heat
Two types - Major and Trace Minerals
Major Minerals
Needed in large amounts
Salt, calcium, and phosphorus
Trace Minerals
Needed in small amounts
Potassium, sulfur, magnesium, iron,
iodine, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese,
boron, molybdenum, fluorine, and
selenium
Most trace minerals are in the feed
Water
Makes up the most of the living
organism (40%-80%)
Helps dissolve nutrients, controls body
temperature of the animals body.
Water in the blood acts as a carrier of
nutrients and is necessary for chemical
reactions
Animals can live longer without food
than water
Review Objectives
Identify sources of nutrients and classes
of feeds related to the ruminant and
non-ruminant animals
Describe sources of nutrients and
classes of feeds related to the ruminant
and non-ruminant animals