TRANSLATION NOTES - Randolph High School

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Transcript TRANSLATION NOTES - Randolph High School

TRANSLATION NOTES
Definition of Translation
The decoding of mRNA’s
message into a protein
 Happens in the ribosome
 Also known as Protein Synthesis,
which is when proteins are made
by stringing amino acids
together to form long chains
(20+ types of amino acids in
humans)

Other Words Used During
Translation
 Transfer
RNA (tRNA) – carries
amino acids from the cytoplasm
to the ribosomes, where they
are joined to make proteins;
single-stranded
 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – makes
up the major structural part of
the ribosome itself; singlestranded
More Words Used During
Translation
Codon – 3 nucleotides (bases)
on the mRNA that code for a
particular amino acid
 Start codon – AUG
 Stop codons – UAA, UAG, UGA
 Anticodon – 3 nucleotides
(bases) on the tRNA that pair up
complementary with the codon
on the mRNA

Picture of Translation
Amino Acids
Anticodon
mRNA
tRNA
UAC
AUG
Codon
ACC
UGG
AAA
UUU GGC
Ribosome
Steps of Translation




The ribosome has 2 slots for tRNAs to fit
into
tRNAs come in and their anticodon pairs
complementary to the codon on the
mRNA
The amino acids (carried on the top of
the tRNA) bond together and start
forming a protein
Everything shifts over one slot and a new
tRNA comes in – this continues until a
stop codon on the mRNA is reached
Translation Animations



http://www.stolaf.edu/people/gianni
ni/flashanimat/molgenetics/translati
on.swf
http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0072437316/student_
view0/chapter15/animations.html#
(click on protein synthesis)
http://wwwclass.unl.edu/biochem/gp2/m_biolog
y/animation/gene/gene_a3.html
Translation Simulation
Make sure Biological Simulations CD
is in the drive