Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

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Transcript Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Created by: Evelin Fuentes
Rai Boone
 Genetic
engineering: the deliberate
 Genetic
code: The sequence of
manipulation of genetic material.
nucleotides in DNA or RNA that determines
the specific amino acid sequence in the
synthesis of proteins.
It is possible to move material between
species because the genetic code is universal.
The transfer of genetic code can cause
genetic mutations in animals
Gene transfer: Involves the use of plasmids,
host cell (bacterium, yeast, or other cell),
restriction enzymes (endonucleases), DNA ligase.
Gene therapy: The treatment of certain
diseases by introducing specific engineered genes
in a patients cells.
Vector: Is what is needed to carry the gene into
the host cell; plasmids are often used as vectors.
Restriction enzyme: Used to cut a desired
section of the DNA.
Plasmids: Used to clone a desired gene.
Host cell: The cell used to receive the genetic
A human gene that codes for insulin can be
inserted into a plasmid and then inserted into
a host cell (bacterium). The bacterium then
synthesis insulin which can then be collected
and used by diabetics.
◦ Note- Gene transfer involves the following
elements: a vector, a host cell, restriction enzyme,
DNA ligase.
Step 1: Introduce the desired gene into a
plasmid and transfer it into a bacterial cell,
then culture the bacteria.
◦ Note: many of the bacteria will have a plasmid with
the desired gene
Step 2: Use restriction enzymes to cut the
desired gene out of the plasmids and purify
the gene using gel electrophoresis.
Step 3:
"Genetic Code: Definition from" Wiki
"IB Biology Notes - Genetic Engineering And Biotechnology." IB
"Gene Therapy: Definition from"
Q&A Combined with Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and
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Guides - Free International Baccalaureate Study Guides, Notes,
Videos and Powerpoints. Web. 13 Feb. 2012.
Wiki Q&A Combined with Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and
Encyclopedias. Web. 13 Feb. 2012.
"BrainPOP | Science." BrainPOP - Animated Educational Site for
Kids - Science, Social Studies, English, Math, Arts. Web. 13 Feb.
2012. <>.