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Chapter 7
Altered States of
Aivee, Joanna, Ciara, Emmanuel, Allene, John
Section 1
Sleeps and Dreams
Why Do We Sleep?
● Some believe sleep is restorative; it allows people to “charge
● Some believe that sleep is a time when the brain recovers from
exhaustion and stress
● Others believe it is a type of primitive hibernation: we sleep to
conserve energy.
● Some suggest that sleep is an adaptive process
Stages Of Sleep
● Temperature decreases
● Pulse rate drops
● Breathing becomes slow and even
Alpha Waves: The normal electrical activity of the brain when conscious
and relaxed.
EEG: A test used to detect abnormalities related to electrical activity of the
How Much Sleep?
● Humans spend approximately one-third of their lives in sleep.
● Sleep varies considerably from individual to individual
Sleep Disorders
● Sleep is essential for mental and physical restoration. Without sleep, you are endanger of
harming public safety/your own.
● Insomnia: Failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested at the next day
● Sleep Apnea: Sleep disorder where person has trouble breathing at night while sleeping
● Narcolepsy: Suddenly falling asleep/feeling very sleepy during the day
● Night Terrors: Sleep disruptions involving screaming, panic, or confusion
● Sleepwalking: Walking or carrying out other behaviours while still being asleep
Circadian Rhythm: The rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day
Consciousness: State of awareness, including a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, and
● We call the mental activity that takes place during sleep
● The first few dreams are usually composed of vague thoughts
left over from the day’s activities.
● Some dreams are negative enough to be considered
● The sense of dread in nightmares may be related to the
intensity of brain activity and the stimulation may be related to
emotional responses.
Section 2
Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation
What is Hypnosis?
Hypnosis: a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of
attention and marked by heightened suggestibility
Helps people quit smoking, lose weight, manage stress, overcome
phobias, and get rid of pain
Participants are not put to sleep; instead, they are put into a
trance by relaxing and losing interest in external distractions
Mutual trust is key between participant and hypnotist
Theories of Hypnosis
Theodore Barber argues that hypnosis is not a special state of
given consciousness but simply the result of suggestibility
He believes that if someone is given instructions and told to do
their best, they can do anything a hypnotized person could do
Some other psychologists believe that hypnotized people behave
as they do because they’ve accepted the role of a hypnotized
Theories of Hypnosis
Other psychologists like Ernest Hilgard believe that hypnosis is a
special state of consciousness
This theory is called the Neodissociation Theory, which states that
the conscious mind dissociates from what happens during
This includes the “hidden observer” concept, where a part of the
brain is aware and tells the hypnotized person what is happening
Uses of Hypnosis
Although hypnosis is used for entertainment, it has uses in medical and
therapeutic purposes
Posthypnotic suggestion is made during hypnosis that influences the
participant’s behaviour afterward
Hypnotic analgesia refers to a reduction of pain
Hypnotists work with the patient to reduce their anxiety and encourage
Therapists use hypnosis to help clients reveal their problems or gain
insight into their lives
The process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines
monitoring the states to be controlled
Used to teach people to control a variety of physiological responses such as
brain waves (EEG), heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature and
sweat-gland activity
Biofeedback involves using machines to tell people about very subtle,
moment-to-moment changes in the body
Meditation is the focusing of attention to clear one’s mind and produce
There are three major approaches to meditation
Transcendental meditation involves the mental repetition of a mantra
Mindfulness meditation focuses on the present moment.
Breath meditation is a concentration on one’s respiration-the process of
inhaling and exhaling.
Section 3
Drugs and Consciousness
Psychoactive Drugs
*Chemicals that affect the central nervous system to alter
Psychoactive drugs alter a person's mood, perception, and
These drugs range from stimulants like the caffeine in coffee,
french vanilla cappuccinos, (hot chocolate) and in cola drinks to
depressants like alcohol to powerful hallucinogens like:
Marijuana, LSD, psychedelic mushrooms, ecstasy & etc...
*Dried leaves and flowers of indian hemp producing state of
consciousness when smoked or consumed*
Effects of Marijuana
Feelings of pleasure and happiness, & among the Eastern cultures for
centuries, is legally and morally acceptable in some societies
Smoking/Consuming Marijuana (THC) intensifies sensory experiences
(hearing, touch, or taste), it distorts time, sometimes impairs learning
and memory. Marijuana can also relieve glaucoma, and nausea :(
- Active ingredient in Marijuana is a complex molecule called
tetrahydrocannabinol (*THC* for short), which occurs naturally in the
common weed Cannabis sativa, or Indian hemp
What are Hallucinations?
Perceptions with no direct external cause
Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or feeling things that do
not exist
Effects of Hallucinations
Hypnosis, meditation, certain drugs, withdrawal from an
addictive drug, and psychological breakdown
Similar drugs caused similar reactions; disorganization of
the brain and arousal of the nervous system
What are Hallucinogens?
Drugs producing hallucinations
Found in plants
Drugs are also called psychedelics, you lose contact with reality
Creates false body image, lose of self, fantasies and
Most powerful drug known, most widely studied and most
powerful hallucinogen
100 to 300 micrograms produces a state, called a trip, lasts 6 to 14
Often dissolved into strips of paper or sugar cubes
Effects of LSD
Experiences hallucinations
where geometric forms evolve
into surrealistic impossibilities
Familiar objects become
unrecognizable, acceleration or
slowing down of time
Impairs thinking
Panic reactions
- Usually called narcotics
- Includes opium, morphine, and
- Produces pain reduction; euphoria
(described as a state between
awake and asleep) and constipation
- Overdose results in loss of control
in breathing, dying from respiratory failure
What is Alcohol?
Most widely used and abused
mind-altering substance in the
United States
Encouraged by
advertisements and social
expectations and traditions
Effects of Alcohol
- Depressant, inhibits the brain’s normal functions
- Act without awareness or social restraint
- Effects depends on amount and frequency of drinking and drinker’s body
- Slurred speech, blurred vision, impaired judgement and memory
- Permanent brain and liver damage
- Changed personality
Drug Abuse and Treatment
*Drug abusers are people who excessively use illegal/legal drugs*
- There are risks connected with drug abuse, including danger of death or
injury by overdose, damage to health, legal consequences (Jail, Fines, etc),
and destructive behaviour
*Treatment for drug abuse usually involves the followings steps*
- The drug abuser must admit he or she has a problem
- Must enter a treatment program or get therapy
- The drug abuser must remain drug free (sober)
Thank you for listening