Lecture 7 File

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Transcript Lecture 7 File

Egypt
People
• 87 Million (15th)
• Most populous in the ME and
3rd in Africa
• 76% under 25
• Majority Ethnic Egyptians
• Bedouin Arabs, Berbers,
Nubians
• 91% Muslim, 9% Christian
(Copts)
Economy
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GDP $262 billion
6,600 per capita
Agriculture (29%), Industry (24%), Services (47%)
Unemployment 10%
Tourism, 1% of world total
Political instability from 2011 weakened the
tourist industry especially in Upper Egypt but has
begun to recover
Government
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2011 Hosni Mubarak overthrown
2013 Mohomed Morsey overthrown
2014 Fatah al Sisi elected 93%of vote
2014 Constitution
Semi Presidential Republic
President elected every 4 years, may
serve 2 terms
• 567 seats 27 selected by the
president
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History
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1517 Conquered by the Ottomans
1798 Invaded by Napoleon of France
1867 Autonomous vassal state
1882 British Invasion
1914 British protectorate
1922 Revolution and Independence
Parliamentary government
1952 Free Officers Movement
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1956 Suez Nationalised
1967 Six Day War
Sinai Occupied
Emergency Law 1967 – 1012
Some constitutional rights suspended,
censorship, street demonstrations and nonapproved political organizations
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1970 Anwar al Sadat President
1973 October War
1978 Camp David Accords
1979 Peace Treaty
1981 al Sadat assassinated, Mubarak President
1997 Luxor massacre
25 January 2011, demonstrations
24 June 2012 Muhammad Morsi, President
26 March 2914, Abdel Fatah al Sisi
Al Nasser, Pan Arabism
• 1952 Free Officers Movement
• Opposition to Western security arrangements
• Egyptian Arab Nationalism
• Struggle with Iraq over leadership
• Arab Cold War
• 1955 Baghdad Pact:
Pakistan, Iran, Iraq,
Turkey, UK
Suez Crisis
• 1951 Anglo Egyptian Treaty abrogated
• ‘Playing the Superpowers’. Recognition of China,
Arms deal with USSR
• US withdraws financial support for Aswan Dam
• Nationalization, Alexandria Speech, Ferdinand de
Lesseps
• 1956 Tripartite Aggression, Britain, France, Israel
• Retake Suez and overthrow Nasser
• Diplomatic Pressure US,
USSR, UN forced
withdrawal
• US blocked UK IMF
Loans and threatened
Israel with sanctions
• Saudi Arabia oil
embargo on UK, France
• Canal re-opened April
1957 after the last IDF
troops left Egypt in
March
1967 Six Day War
• Nasser, “The battle will be a
general one and our basic
objective will be to destroy
Israel“
• Crushing defeat for the Arab
coalition
• Loss of Sinai Peninsula
• 1970 Nasser dies
• Anwar al Sadat becomes
president
Sadat, Post-Nasserism
• 1970 Nasser dies
• Anwar al Sadat becomes
president
• Corrective Revolution,
Purge of Nasserists Political
and Economic Reforms,
including multi party system
• October war 1973,
• Egypt First Policy
• 1978 Camp David
• Shunned by Islamists and
Arab states
• Assassinated by Egyptian
Islamic Jihad 1981
Mubarak, Islamists, Revolution
• Normalized relations with Arab Neighbours
• Established pragmatic relations with the West
• Inclusion of moderate Islamists, managed the Muslim
Brotherhood
• 1997 Luxor attack
• 1992-1997, Deaths 1,200
• head of the counter-terrorism police a speaker of
parliament, over 100 Egyptian police
• Crack down on militant groups
• 2011 Failed to quell street protests
• 11 February 2011 resigned
Islam and Politics
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Hassan al Banna, Muslim Brotherhood 1922
Al Azhar founded 970
The Ulema
Sayid Qutb executed 1967
Ayman al Zawahiri