Technology and Prospects for Cross

download report

Transcript Technology and Prospects for Cross

Technology and Prospects for
Cross-regional Power Networks
GEIDCO
February 22nd, 2017
1. Background
2. Study Contents and Outcomes
 Status and prospects for
interconnection
 Case studies of regional energy
interconnection
 Regulatory and market
frameworks for interconnection
2
Background
T o comprehensively analyze the current development status and prospects for
electricity interconnection under climate change scenario, and to discuss the contribution
of cross-regional interconnection to improve the development of renewable energy and
access remote energy resources, Global Energy Interconnection Development and
Cooperation Organization (GEIDCO), partnering with International Energy Agency (IEA),
State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) and other organizations, has established a joint
working group to carry out the study, aiming to promote the development of cross-border
and inter-continental interconnection, and deliver policy recommendation.
In November 2016, IEA released a flyer of the study outcomes and received positive
response during the 22nd session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP
22) .
3
Background
This publication mainly focuses on development status and prospects of technology,
case study, Regulatory and market frameworks for interconnection. The major topics are as
follows:
Based on IEA climate change scenarios, the current development status and
technology innovation of cross-border and inter-regional electricity
interconnection are studied. The future development trends and prospects
are proposed.
By studying the electricity interconnection cases in world's major regions, it is
validated that there are comprehensive benefits from interconnection, which
include balancing mismatches in supply, saving demand and peak capacity,
improving the integration level of variable renewable energy, accessing
remote energy resources and etc.
The market frameworks, regulatory and business investment models for
interconnection are systematically studied. The measures such as establishing
international organizations, improving market regulatory framework,
applying coordinated planning and etc., are proposed. Key issues in
development and utilization of new interconnectors are thoroughly discussed
as well.
4
1. Background
2. Study Contents and Outcomes
 Status and prospects for
interconnection
 Case studies of regional energy
interconnection
 Regulatory and market
frameworks for interconnection
5
2.1 Status and prospects for interconnection
Electricity Interconncetion Scenario
Currently, the total length of global electricity grid is about 75 million km, with around 250GW of
interconnectors and high voltage transmission links (330GW in 2020). The interconnection within
China grows rapidly. By 2016, the accumulated power transmitted by China UHV lines is 615 billion
kWh.
•
•
•
The global investment in power sector is around USD 700 billion in 2015,40% of which went to electricity networks
With a greater emphasis on flexibility and interconnection, IEA predicts that the investment in transmission will increase by a third in
20 years
The selection of interconnetion technology (AC or DC) depends on its target. The typical interconnection scenarios: Low-cost
interconnection over large distances, Connecting asynchronous grids, Connecting remote energy resources and loads, and
Accommodating variable renewable electricity
Historic and projected investments in transmission
and distribution, IEA 2015 scenario
Source: IEA (2016, World Energy Investment; IEA (2016), World
Energy Outlook (2016).
Growth in high-voltage transmission capacity
Source: BNEF (2016), Global HVDC Interconnector Database; IEA (2016),
Energy Technology Perspectives 2016.
6
2.1 Status and prospects for interconnection
Electricity Interconncetion Scenario
Low-cost interconnection over large distances
Current Status: Rapid promotion of UHV/HV-DC technology
•The longest cross-border interconnection: NorNed link between Norway and the
Netherlands, 600km/700MW
•China: Haminan-Zhengzhou±800kV UHVDC, 2191km/8GW
Prosptects:many interconnection projects are scheduled
•Undersea North Sea Network (NSN) link between the Nordic zone and the United Kingdom,
Jarud-Qingzhou
UHVDC link
730km/1.4GW
•China Jarud-Qingzhou±800kV UHVDC link, 1234km/10GW
Connecting asynchronous grids
Current Status: Nearly 13 GW of links connect asynchronous grids around the
world (excluding interconnection within China)
•Current highest operation voltage: China-Russia ±500kV DC back-to-back interconnection
•China: Central and North China power grid is asynchronously connected through DC lines
with total capacity of 31.7GW
Prospects: strong demand for asynchronous interconnection
•NordBalt link, connecting the Baltic with the Nordic
China-Russia DC back to •links between the asynchronous grids of South America in Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina
•Mongolia-China-South Korea-Japan interconnection project
back link
7
2.1 Status and prospects for interconnection
Electricity Interconncetion Scenario
Connecting remote energy resources and loads
Current Status: Increase voltage to deliver remote energy resources
•The longest: Brazil Rio Madeira project brings hydro power from the Amazon basin to the
densely populated Sao Paulo area, 2 800 km away
•China: 6 UHVDC links, transmitting wind, PV, hydro power from west, north, southwest part
of China to eastern load center
Prosptects:Accessing remote energy resources
Zhundong-Wannan
UHVDC link
•China Zhundong-Wannan ±1100kV UHVDC link, 3324km/12GW, will break records in
transmission distance, operation voltage, and capacity
Accommodating variable renewable electricity
Current Status: Application of FACTS, Flexible DC and virtual synchronous
machine
•costs for IGBT have decreased by 2/3 over the past eight years
•Denmark, Skagerrak 4, is particularly designed for flexibility to accommodate high shares of
wind power in the country
•World first true Bipolar DC link: China Xiamen ±320 kV flexible DC link
Denmark Skagerrak 4
Prosptects:Continuous upgrading and implementation of key technologies
8
2.1 Status and prospects for interconnection
Technology Innovation on Electricity Interconnection
UHVAC power transmission
Jindongnan-NanyangJingmen UHVAC project
Characteristic: With longer transmission ditance and larger transmission capacity, UHVAC
networks will provide voltage and reactive power support for multi-DC fed-in grid
Current status: world's first commercial UHVAC line: China Jindongnan-NanyangJingmen 1000kV project, 640km/5GW, and followed with Huainan-Nanjing-Shanghai,
Aferwards, Zhebei-Fuzhou, Huainan-Zhebei-Shanghai, Ximeng-Shandong UHVAC projects
in operation
Prospects: With more potentials on transmission distance and capacity, Half-wavelength
AC transmission could be one of the solutions to future trans-continental synchronous
interconnection.
UHVDC technology
Characteristic: Long transmission ditance, large transmission capacity, controllable power
flow, capable of end-to-end transmitting power to load center, reduce or avoid over
power flow
Current status: The voltage level of IGBT-based DC link already reached ±1100kV/120GW,
the potential transmission distance could be over 4000km
Prospects: Researches on converter, valve, bushing, DC filter and other core devices with
higher operation voltage, larger capacity and higher reliability. Research on ±800kV DC
cable has been started China.
±1000 kV DC Converter
Valve
9
2.1 Status and prospects for interconnection
Technology Innovation on Electricity Interconnection
Flexible DC Transmission
Characteristic: Able to supply power to passive power grid, avoid commutation failure
and easy to establish multi-terminal DC network
Current status: Flexible DC technology is under demonstration level. In worldwide,
there are already 20 projects in operation and 20 under construction. Europe has the
most VSC-HVDC projects. Wind power integration and weak grids interconnection are
the most applied scenarios.
Prospects: Improve VSC-HVDC capacity and operation voltage.
VSC-HVDC Converter
Valve
Multi-Terminal HVDC
Zhoushan Multi-Terminal
HVDC Geographical scheme
Characteristic: Able to connect variable power sources to consumptions and solve the
stability problem aroused by single large-scale HVDC link connected in AC grid.
Current status: Italy-Corsica-Sardinia multi-terminal DC link is the world's first multiterminal HVDC project. Québec-New England multi-terminal DC link is also in
operation. China Zhoushan project is the world's first five-terminal flexible DC project in
operation.
Prospects: Breakthrough on DC circuit breaker, modeling and simulation, networking,
fast relay-protection, insulation design, and operation techniques.
10
2.1 Status and prospects for interconnection — Conclusion
1
The growing rate of electricity demand will be higher than energy demand in
the future. To accommodate variable renewable energy, it is necessary to
strengthen electricity interconnections, enlarge transmission capacity, and
improve the flexibility of power grid.
2
The typical interconnection scenarios: Low-cost interconnection over large
distances, Connecting asynchronous grids, Connecting remote energy
resources and loads, Accommodating variable renewable electricity, and etc.
3
The future development trend of electricity interconnection technology will
mainly focus on UHVAC/DC transmission, VSC-HVDC transmission, multiterminal HVDC transmission, and etc.
4
UHVAC/DC is the basis of ultra long distance and large capacity power
transmission. Taking full advantage of different technologies, efficiently
utilizing of energy sources in different time zones will greatly improve the
building of interconnection network.
11
1. Background
2. Study Contents and Outcomes
 Status and prospects for
interconnection
 Case studies of regional energy
interconnection
 Regulatory and market
frameworks for interconnection
12
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection
CASE 1: Europe-North Africa Interconnection
UCTE
Europe-North Africa Interconnection
•
Largest interconnected grid in the world in terms of hosted power
capacity, more than 1TW installed by 2015
The southern border
•The synchronous grid of Continental Europe encompasses the 24 countries
of the Continental Europe Regional Group of the ENTSO-E and neighboring
countries (Albania, Ukraine, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia)
•Interconnection situation:the grids of Spain and Morocco were
interconnected by a single 400 kV circuit in AC through a submarine cable
line
The northern border
•
exist
planning
The Nordic synchronous grid(formed by Denmark, Sweden, Norway and
Finland) linked via several HVDC cables with the UCTE grid
13
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection
CASE 1: Europe-North Africa Interconnection—The southern border
Electricity trade

North African countries are experiencing a growing electricity demand. Almost all of the Morocco’s
imported electricity comes from Spain.
Mid-term opportunities

Strengthen interconnections between Spain and Morocco.

Plans to connect Tunisia and Italy by submarine cable, 200 km/600 MW.

An agreement has been signed to conduct a feasibility study for the electric interconnection project
between Morocco and Portugal, with a capacity of 1 GW.
Benefits

Low-cost renewable energy in Africa replace the thermal power in both Europe and Africa, to reduce
carbon emissions.

Promote closer cooperation and break barriers between countries, and establish mutually dependent and
beneficial organization. Promote harmonious development and utilization of energy.
Challenges and opportunities

Clear regulations, agreements and grid codes are necessary to enable different power systems to operate
together efficiently.

Promote interconnection between Europe and North Africa. Promote large scale development of clean
energy in North Africa countries.
14
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection
CASE 1: Europe-North Africa Interconnection—The northern border
Electricity trade
 In 2015, Norway exports almost 10% of total energy production and Sweden exports 15%.
Mid-term opportunities
 The Nordic Carbon-Neutral Scenario sees the VRE share of generation in Northern Europe
grow from 7% in 2013 to 30% in 2050.
 Build a unique offshore electricity grid in the southern part of the Baltic Sea.
Benefits
 Keep strengthen the link between Nordic synchronous grid with the UCTE grid, make full use
of large hydropower. By unidirectional electricity trade, enhance the power system
flexibility, and promote development and utilization of renewable energy
 By offshore energy grid in southern Baltic Sea, linking offshore wind farms to Continental
Europe.
Challenges and opportunities
 Sharing of costs and benefits, stable operation of large power grid, benefitting from
synergies in the generation portfolio
 increased interconnection capacity may unlock wind potential in Nordic countries beyond
domestic demand in response to higher electricity prices on the continent
 Cost allocation and development of domestic power grid upgrade may enhance noneconomic obstacle
15
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection
CASE 2: Linking the Americas through SIEPAC
SIEPAC – the Central American Interconnection System
Six countries : Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, El
Salvador and Guatemala
International operation: The establishment of an international
transmission line company(EPR) under the Framework
Agreement of the Electrical Integration of Central American.
Shareholders include Central American countries and extraregional countries like Spain.
SIEPAC’s transmission line route
Interconnection situation
• 1800 km of single circuit 230 kV transmission lines, which
provides 300 MW of transfer
• Integration :
allowed for the deployment of the
telecommunication infrastructure needed for the integration
of Central American, México and Colombia systems through
the installation of an optical ground wire (OPGW) conductor
with 36 fibre-optic cables
16
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection
CASE 2: Linking the Americas through SIEPAC
Energy transactions in MER, 2013-15
Benefits
Has the potential to enhance the local underdeveloped
hydro resources and to improve the efficiency in the
operations of the thermal power plants in the region.
Promote electricity trading and enhance the energy
safety in the region.
Challenges and opportunities
•
Electricity trade
The electricity sector and market structure of the
six countries involved varies significantly, from
models based on fully competitive wholesale
markets to vertically integrated utilities acting as
single buyers
•
•
Enable the use of SIEPAC’s future second circuit as
required to improve transmission capacity reducing
national flows in the first circuit to improve reliability
and safety of the regional transmission network.
Execute the Colombia–Panama transmission
interconnection project, which is crucial for the
consolidation of the regional integration.
Jointly make the plan for the regional power
development
17
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection
CASE 3: East Asia Interconnection
•
East Asia, locates in the east part of Asia, west bank of the Pacific
Ocean, includes China, Mongolia, Russia(Far East and Siberia
Area), North Korea, South Korea, Japan and the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
Northeast Asia
•Interconnection status:The current cross-border interconnection
projects include Russia-Mongolia, Russia-China, China-Mongolia. The
overall capacity is relatively small
Southeast Asia
•
•
Three subregions for interconnections in Southeast Asia are
divided
Interconnection stauts: It is envisioned that the total capacity
will reach 23 200 MW (Hermawanto, 2016).
18
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection
CASE 3: East Asia Interconnection—Northeast Asia
Electricity trade

No unified electricity trading market exist in Northeast Asia now

The current cross-border electricity trade concentrates between Russia and Mongolia, Russia and China,
Mongolia and China
Mid-term opportunities

Governments in Northeast Asia are increasingly aware of the necessity to strengthen energy interoperability
and its economic and financial dialogue

Relevant organizations and TSO are working on expansion of cross-border electricity trade between
Northeast Asia
Benefits

Promote the development of renewable energy, increase energy system flexibility, expand cross-border
electricity trading, create new jobs, and reduce carbon dioxide emissions which will bring significant
environmental benefits
Challenges and opportunities



Establish intergovernmental committees to support energy infrastructure construction
Establish regional energy multilateral cooperation mechanism, legislation for cross-border electricity trade
and improvement of the relevant laws and regulations
Financing capacity needs to be strengthened
19
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection
CASE 3: East Asia Interconnection—Southeast Asia
Electricity trade
 Power trade among ASEAN countries is conducted only under bilateral arrangements;
multilateral trading agreements do not yet exist but are planned.
 There are two particularly notable models for bilateral electricity trade in Southeast Asia. The
first is the Thailand–Lao PDR model, Another notable bilateral electricity trade model is the
Singapore–Malaysia rolling zero net-energy exchange.
Mid-term opportunities
 A group of ASEAN countries agreed to pilot a multilateral electricity trade initiative to
transmit 100 MW of electricity via existing interconnections from Lao PDR through Thailand
and Malaysia to Singapore
Benefits
 Effectively protect the Southeast Asian economic and social development of low-cost clean
power supply, increase employment, stimulating economic development, also provide the
fundamental solution to sustainable development.
Challenges and opportunities
 Concerns that increased regional power system integration may undermine national
sovereignty or require reforms that conflict with national interests can impede progress on
cross-border interconnections.
20
2.2Case studies of regional energy interconnection ——Conclusions
The cases above present a part of the interconnection projects in most
continents. Due to the differences of climate and energy resources, cross-regional
interconnection of power networks will bring huge benefits.
1
2
Meanwhile, transporting the low-cost electric power of large-scale
renewable energy base to the load center, can reduce its power cost.
Cross-border power grids can promote the renewable energy resources
development and enhance the regional economic cooperation.
21
1. Background
2. Study Contents and Outcomes
 Status and prospects for
interconnection
 Case studies of regional energy
interconnection
 Regulatory and market
frameworks for interconnection
22
2.3Regulatory and market frameworks for interconnection
Key Factors of Cross-regional Interconnection
Common
1. Coordinate relevant
institutions
2. Meet policy and
regulatory
requirements (both
technical and
environmental)
3. Attract stakeholder
buy-in, and
appropriately allocate
costs.
Differences
1. Additional
layer of crossborder
collaboration
2. Complex of
selecting
locatino
Key Measures
1. MoUs among
all relevant
agencies
2. Establish a
permanent,
supranational
body that is
given clear
levels and
limits of
responsibility
Market Framework for Interconnection
models for cross-border
trading of electricity
unidirectional trades based
on cost differences or IPP
imports
bidirectional or
multinational power trades
between national utilities
multi-buyer, multiseller market
23
2.3Regulatory and market frameworks for interconnection
Key Factors of Market Framework
Depending on
Cost allocation
•
•
•
Recommended methodology for cost allocation is the “beneficiary pays”
principle
Clearly define boundaries for cost allocation
Agree to a common methodology for identifying and quantifying beneficiaries
in large interconnection project
Merchant investments
•
Merchant investors' revenue source: charging a fee for access or selling
exclusive access to the line
•
different market
frameworks, apply
appropriate cost
allocation and
metchant investment
models
Experiences on applying merchant model remain limited
Key Factors of Regulatory Framework
Determine
Allocate
network
capacity to
transfer
market
capacity
participants
Unify
regulatory
framework
Unify regulatory
framework
, data sharing, crosscountry dispatching
and market
regulation design,
and utilize
interconnector
properly
24
2.3Regulatory and market frameworks for
interconnection——Conclusions
1
Market frameworks for cross-regional interconnection matter for two aspects.
First, the most important things about development of new interconnectors are
cost allocation and investment. Second, the key issues about the operation are
determining transmission capacity and allocating capacity to market
participants.
2
In early stage of power grid planning, to make the coordination easier, a multinational organization has to be established.
3
Cost allocation of investment in power grid is the first issue to be addressed in
international power market.
4
Wide area integrated electricity market could improve the operation stability
and economic efficiency of power system, and reduce the potential operation
risk of high penetration of renewable energy.
25
Epilogue
Cross-regional interconnection in the ascendant, is the trend of
power grids and the basis of building global energy
interconnection. It is also a complex system project requiring joint
efforts.
We hope more entities could join us to build global energy
interconnection, and realize a green harmonious global village.
26
Thank You!