Moral development

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Transcript Moral development

Developmental psychology: Infancy & Childhood
Infancy & Childhood: Social development
Effects of early attachments on later relationships
Self-concept
• 1st step of self-concept - self awareness
Mirror experiments
• Before 6 months: doesn’t recognize as person
• After 6 months: believes another child
• Around 15 to 18 months: realizes it is him/herself
• Make-up on baby’s nose
• Tries to wipe it off own face
• Grows until set by around age 10
Developmental psychology: Infancy & Childhood
Infancy & Childhood: Social development
Effects of early attachments on later relationships
Self-esteem
• Judgments & feelings of own value/worth
Self-efficacy
• Beliefs about capability of achieving goals
Self-esteem vs. Self-efficacy
Roughly/simply: who you are vs. what you
can/can’t do.
Developmental psychology: Infancy & Childhood
Infancy & Childhood: Social development
Effects of early attachments on later relationships
Child rearing practices
• Affect our early attachments, selfconcept
• Diana Baumrind
• 4 major ones
Developmental psychology: Infancy & Childhood
Infancy & Childhood: Social development
Effects of early attachments on later relationships
• Diana Baumrind
• 4 major ones
1) Authoritarian – parent is boss
2) Authoritative/democratic – parents &
children negotiate, discuss
3) Permissive/laissez faire – children have
final say
4) uninvolved/neglectful – egocentric adult,
doesn’t notice kid
Developmental psychology: Infancy & Childhood
Infancy & Childhood: Social development
Effects of early attachments on later relationships
Evaluating parenting styles:
Authoritarian
• Children have little control
• Feel helpless & incompetent, unable to make decisions
(never had to)
Authoritative/democratic
• Children have greatest sense of control
Permissive/laissez faire
• Children have too much control, but few guidelines
• Never “reigned in”
uninvolved/neglectful
• Bad
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Adolescence: background
Adolescence:
•Transition between childhood &
adulthood
•Begins: puberty
•Ends: independent adult status
•Maturation
•Recently - begins earlier, ends
later
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Adolescence: Physical development
Puberty
•Period of sexual maturation:
•Girls – 11
•Boys – 13
•Developing of Primary & Secondary
sexual characteristics
Milestones:
• Menarche – 1st menstrual period
• Spermarche – 1st ejaculation
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Adolescence: Physical & cognitive development
Early adolescence – concepts
• Limbic system develops before frontal
lobe
• Result?
Often self-focused:
• Remnants - Egocentrism
• Theory of mind – still developing
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Adolescence: Cognitive development
Early adolescence – terms
Imaginary audience or spotlight effect
• Believe everyone’s attention focused on
you
Personal fable
• Belief feeling, situation, etc. are all
unique
• First person to fall in love, have fight
with best friend, etc.
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Erik Erikson
1902 - 1994
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Erik Erikson:
• Interactions develop over time
• Each stage of life had psychosocial
crises that needed resolution
• How we resolve each crises
determines how/if we move on to
next level
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Stages of Psychosocial development
Stage 1 - Trust vs. mistrust
• Infancy
• To 1 year old
• If needs are met, a sense of trust is
formed
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Stages of Psychosocial development
Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and
Doubt
• Toddlerhood
• 1 to 2 years
• Learn to do things for themselves,
express own interests
• Or will doubt abilities
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Stages of Psychosocial development
Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt
• Preschooler
• 3 to 5 years
• Not just doing things independently,
initiating them
• Or feel guilty about efforts to be
independent
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Stages of Psychosocial development
Stage 4 – Competence/industry vs.
Inferiority
• Elementary school
• 6 years to puberty
• Learn pleasure of applying themselves
to tasks, or feel inferior
• Work replaces play
• Find something they’re good at
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Stages of Psychosocial development
Stage 5 - Identity vs. Role confusion
• Adolescence
• Teen years into 20’s
• Learn who they are or be confused
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Stages of Psychosocial development
Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation
• Young adult
• 20’s to early 40’s
• Learn to form close relationships, or
feel isolated
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Adolescence: Social development
Identity
• Major task of adolescence – developing an
identity
Intimacy
• Ability to form close, loving relationships
• Need to Identity before you can do this
• Gender differences:
• Males more independent
• Females more interdependent
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Stages of Psychosocial development
Stage 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation
• Middle adulthood
• 40’s to 60’s
• Feel they are contributing to the world
(work, relationship), or they feel they
lack purpose
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: social development
Stages of Psychosocial development
Stage 8 - Integrity vs. Despair
• Late adulthood
• 60’s on
• Looking back at one’s life, either feel a
sense of satisfaction or regret
Developmental psychology: Across the life span
Across the life span: Well being
“The Five Stages of Grief”
• AKA “Kubler-Ross stages:
• More or less been discounted
• Stages:
1. Denial
DABDA
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development
Lawrence Kohlberg
1927-1987
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development
Lawrence Kohlberg
• Our morality develops as our
cognition develops
• Developed a moral ladder
• Heinz dilemma
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Level 1
Preconventional morality
• Until 9 years old
• Right and wrong based on what’s best for
themselves
Stage 1 – Punishment Avoidance
• Only wrong behavior is when you get
caught
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Level 1
Preconventional morality
• Until 9 years old
• Right and wrong based on what’s best for
themselves
Stage 2 – Exchange of favors/concrete
rewards
• Do something if they get something out of
it
• Recognize others have needs
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Level 2
Conventional morality
• Early adolescence
Stage 3 – Good girl/good boy
• Make decisions based on what will please
others (especially authority figures)
• Begin to take other people’s perspectives
and feelings into decision making
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Level 2
Conventional morality
• Early adolescence
Stage 4 – Law and Order
• Look at society for guidelines concerning
right and wrong
• Rules are needed to keep society in order
• Believe it is their duty to obey them
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Level 3
Postconventional morality
• College level
Stage 5 – Social contract
• Laws & rules agreement among people
regarding appropriate behavior
• Useful for general law and order,
protect individual rights
• Laws & rules not absolutes
• If situations change, so should laws
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Level 3
Postconventional morality
• College level
Stage 6 – Universal ethical principle
• Rare, even in adults
• “Utopian”
• Laws & rules that are harmful can be
disobeyed (in fact, should be)
• There are higher laws
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Level 3
Postconventional morality
• College level
Stage 6 – Universal ethical principle
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Criticisms of Kohlberg
Carol Gilligan
1936 -
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Criticisms of Kohlberg
Gilligan criticisms:
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Criticisms of Kohlberg
Gilligan criticisms:
• Kohlberg’s subjects: mostly males
• Believes men & woman have
different morals
A community of moles give shelter to a
homeless porcupine. But the moles are
constantly stabbed by the porcupine's quills.
What should they do?
Developmental psychology: Adolescence
Moral development: Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
Criticisms of Kohlberg
Kohlberg
Gilligan
Emphasis:
Emphasis:
• Fairness
-Compassion & caring
• Justice
-Interpersonal relationships
Criticisms of both
• Both view moral development in terms of
logic & reasoning
• Ignore emotional component of morality
Kohlberg’s Stage (in order)
Heinz’s action if he was at that level
Punishment
Avoidance
1
2
Exchange of
favors/ concrete
rewards
Good girl/good
boy
3
•Depends on how
likely he will get
caught
• Yes – gets wife health back
Or…
• No – pharmacists needs to
make a living
•No – if caught others
will think ill of him
•Yes – make his wife
happy
WHY? (Defend your
answer)
Kohlberg’s Stage (in order)
Heinz’s action if he was at that level
Law and Order
•No, stealing is
against the law
4
Social
contract
5
• Stealing against law, but
pharmacist is morally
wrong
• This needs to change!
Universal
• Stealing against law, but
ethical principle
6
what pharmacist is doing is
worse
• So o.k. to steal
WHY? (Defend your
answer)
Developmental psychology: Newborn Development
Freddy is four years old and wants to play
with the toy that Evan is playing with.
What does Freddy do, and why?
Piaget
• Preoperational stage: egocentrism, can’t see
another’s point of view.
• So, likely would take it
Kohlberg
• Stage 1: Punishment avoidance. He will get
punished if he is caught.
• So, ultimately, wouldn’t take it.
Developmental psychology: Newborn Development
Freddy is ten years old and wants to play
with the toy that Evan is playing with. What
does Freddy do, and why?
Piaget
• Theory of mind
• Freddy realizes that Evan is playing with
the toy, so shouldn’t take it.
Kohlberg
• Stage 4: Law and Order. Stealing is against
the law.
• So, ultimately, wouldn’t take it.
Developmental psychology: Newborn Development
In both cases, he doesn’t take, but
for different reasons.
At four, doesn’t care about Evan,
just doesn’t want to be punished.
At ten, realizes that stealing is
against the law and can see things
from Evan’s point of view (theory of
mind).