Ch7 Monocots

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Transcript Ch7 Monocots

Monocotyledons:
monocots, Monocotyledoneae, or
Liliopsida
Chapter 7
Simpson, 2nd Edition
Monocots
• 22% of all
angiosperms
• 56,000 species
Diversity of Orders/Families
1. Table 7.2 p. 204
2. Table 7.3 p. 231
Class Liliopsida
According to Cronquist, 1988
Monocot Apomorphies
1. sieve tube plastids with cuneate proteinaceous inclusions
Monocot Apomorphies
2. atactostele stem vasculature
•
•
“random” v.b. scattered in stem
thus no vascular cambium & no true secondary growth
Monocot Apomorphies
Quick review:
stele types Fig 10.16
Protostele
Dictyostele
Siphonostele
Eustele
Siphonostele
Atactostele
Monocot Apomorphies
Quick review:
secondary growth Fig 10.18
Monocot Apomorphies
Quick review:
secondary growth Fig 10.19
Monocot Apomorphies
Quick review:
secondary growth Figs 10.20-21
Monocot Apomorphies
2. atactostele stem vasculature
•
•
“random” v.b. scattered in stem
thus no vascular cambium & no true secondary growth
Monocot Apomorphies
3. parallel leaf venation (most spp)
Monocot Apomorphies
4. single cotyledon
Monocots
Characteristics
1)
2)
derived from primitive
dicots
by Lower Cretaceous...
•
3)
wide variety of
monocot leaves (100
mya)
monocots were the
first significant
dichotomy in the
evolutionary
diversification of the
dicots
A. Order Alismatales
• 13 families (2 covered)
• well developed perianth
• perianth biseriate, 3-parted
“The order has often been split into the Arales
(containing only the Araceae) and the
Alismatales, s.s. (largely equivalent to the
Alismatidae, sensu Cronquist 1981, and
Takhtajan 1997), but some recent molecular
studies unite these two groups.”
• sensu = in the sense of
• s.s. = sensu stricto – strict sense
• s.l. = sensu lato – broad sense
sea-grasses: Hydrocharitaceae Thallasia
A. Order Alismatales
P 2+2,3+3,(2+2),(3+3) or 0 A4,6,8 or (4,6,8) G(3)
superior
Araceae - Arum family
104/3300 cosmopolitan; tropical and
subtropical diversity
1) perennial herbs
2) spathe - large bract or leaf subtending a spadix;
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
may be rolled into a tube with the spadix inside [as
in Calla lilly]
spadix - a spike of small flowers on a fleshy axis;
perfect or imperfect flowers
many spadix are monoecious with staminate flowers
on the upper half and pistillate on the lower half
insect pollinated; some with strong odors (meat
colored arum lilies - see video)
plant tissues with calcium oxalate - this can cause a
mechanical injury to the mucosal linings
some worldwide economic importance
number 1 houseplant family
A. Order Alismatales
Araceae - Arum family
http://www.londongardenstrust.org
Lemna – duck weed
Amorphophallus titanum – the
largest inflorescence of any
flowering plant
Wolffia – a floating
aquatic in flower:
P0 A1 G1 Worlds
smallest flower
A. Order Alismatales
Araceae - Arum family
Philodendron
Dieffenbachia - dumbcane
Colocasia esculenta - Elephant Ear or Taro
Spathiphyllum - peace lily
A. Order Alismatales
Araceae - Arum family
Anthurium
Zantedeschia - calla lilly
Colocasia - taro
A. Order Alismatales
Araceae - Arum family
Arisaema triphyllum - jack-in-the-pulpit
A. Order Alismatales
K3 C3 A6,9-∞ G3-∞ superior
Alismataceae - water plantain family
15/88 aquatic & semiaquatic;
temperate & tropic
1) aquatic herbs
2) scapose
3) apocarpous
4) arrowhead shaped
leaves - in our
species (Sagittaria)
5) fruit an achene
6) fruit and
corm/rhizome
important wildlife
foodsource
Alisma water
plaintain
A. Order Alismatales
Alismataceae - water plantain family
Sagittaria arrow-leaf
B. Order Liliales
1) large monocot group
2) 10 families, only 1
covered here
3) much taxonomic
revision
4) Liliaceae s.l. contained
over 280 genera and
4000 species
B. Order Liliales
P3+3 A3+3 G(3) superior
Liliaceae - lily family
16/600 cosmopolitan
1) perennial, terrestrial herbs
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
(shrubs, woody vines)
bulbs, corms, rhizomes common
petaloid perianth of tepals
fruit a berry or capsule
sheathing leaves, rarely petiolate,
simple
past treatment as a large
polymorphic assemblage which is
now broken into segregate families
B. Order Liliales
Lilium
Liliaceae - lily family
Tulipa
Erythronium
Calochortus
Liliaceae - lily family
B. Order Liliales
Erythronium albidum a
spring ephemeral in our
riparian woodlands
dalebenhamphotography
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/taxonomy/plants/
2010 Minnesota dwarf trout lily surveys at Nerstrand Big Woods State Park, Minnesota.
Several volunteers participated in these surveys led by the Minnesota Department of
Natural Resources.
Nancy Sather (left) and Derek Anderson (right), Minnesota DNR, show a volunteer how to
mark Minnesota dwarf trout lilies with flags to aid counts.
Photo by USFWS; Tamara Smith
C. Order Asparagales
1.
2.
3.
14 families sensu APG III but
Simpson recognizes 24 families
likely apomorphy is presence of black
substance (phytomelan) in seed coat
but not found in Orchidaceae
Many recent changes in family
delineations
Agapanthus
Yucca
Day-lily
Orchid
Iris
Agapanthus
Yucca
C. Order Asparagales
P3+3 A(6) G(3) superior or
inferior, hypanthium in some
Agavaceae – agave family (=admired one)
8/300 cosmopolitan/tropical diversity
Yucca moth (Tegiticula) – symbiosis
1) perennial subshrubs,
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
shrubs, trees, herbs
stems acaulescent caudex
leaves xeromorphic
fruit a capsule
xeric to mesic habitats
often with CAM
photosynthesis
indigenous sue for fiber,
food beverages, soap,
medicinals
Yucca glauca –
soapweed in Western
NE
C. Order Asparagales
Agavaceae – agave family
C. Order Asparagales
Agavaceae – agave family
Agave - Century plant
C. Order Asparagales
Agavaceae – agave family