Unit 3 Part 3 Ecosystems of the world

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Transcript Unit 3 Part 3 Ecosystems of the world

Unit 3 Part 3
Ecosystems of the world
p. 101 - 109
Define “climax vegetation” p. 102
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Climax vegetation is
stable/dominant
vegetation
in balance with the
climatic AND soil
conditions
It should change very
little if left undisturbed.
Best suited!!!
Each ecosystem has its
own climax vegetation.
Example: The “climax vegetation” in
boreal / coniferous forest. P. 102
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Evergreen trees
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Needle like leaves
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Thick bark
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Conical shape
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Coniferous forests
Dense growing
which blocks sun
World Ecosystems
Different Animals
Different Vegetation
Ecosystems
Different Soil
Different Climate (Temp. & Precip.)
Climate Zones
Different Locations
Ecosystems
Climate zones
Ecosystems AND climatic regions p.104
Ecosystem
zones
Climate
zones
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Ecosystems of the world
are largely defined by their
climax vegetation.
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Examples!!! tropical rain
forest, grasslands, boreal
forests, cacti, etc.
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Climax Vegetation is
determined by climate (and
soils).
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Therefore, ecosystems
match-up with climate
zones…
Altitudinal succession vs. latitudinal succession p. 104
Altitudinal succession vs. latitudinal succession
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The changes in ecosystems & vegetation that
occur as one moves from the equator to the
poles
Altitudinal
succession
vs. latitudinal
succession
Altitudinal
succession
vs. latitudinal
succession
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The changes in ecosystems & vegetation that
occur as one moves from the base of an tropical
mountain to the summit.
Altitudinal
succession
vs. latitudinal
succession
Altitudinal
succession
vs. latitudinal
succession
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The changes in ecosystems & vegetation that occur as
one moves from the equator to the poles is very similar
to the changes in ecosystems & vegetation seen moving
from the base of an tropical mountain to the summit.
World Ecosystems
Different Animals
ADAPTATIONS
Different Vegetation
Different Soil
Different Climate (Temp. & Precip.)
Different Locations
Ecosystems & Adaptation
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A specific or unique feature that
enables an organism to become better
suited to its habitat/environment.
The change in an organism that allows
it to live successfully/survive in its
environment.
Grasses, Shrubs and low plants
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Shallow roots
Fast reproduction
/ flowering cycle
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1-3 meters below the
surface the ground is
completely frozen
growing season is very
short, 1-2 months
Animals
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Hibernation
(Bears)
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Migration (Birds)
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Insulating
features
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Sleep right though the cold
months under a thick
blanket of snow and not
freeze.
Move further south to
warmer climates to avoid
the cold and obtain food.
Some animals have extra
fur or fat to help hold in
heat so they don’t freeze.
Animals
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Camouflage
(snowshoe hare,
ptarmigan, bear)
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Feet (ptarmigan)
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Feet (snowshoe
hare / polar bear)
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Hides from prey or
protects from predators.
Feet enlarge in the fall
for walking on snow
Snow shoe hare develop
a covering of hair. Polar
bear – bristles.
Trees – Conifers (Evergreens)
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Needle-like leaves
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Thick bark
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Conical shape
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Less surface area on the
leaves means less
transpiration (Winter all
water is frozen).
The thicker the bark the
less water that will
escape.
Heavy snow during the
winter will fall off reliving
the pressure on the
branches.
Trees – Deciduous
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Shed their leaves when
winter comes. (Birch,
maple, aspen
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Since the water
is frozen during
winter they
shed their
leaves so no
water is lost via
transpiration.
Grasses
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Shallow roots
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Small water
requirement
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Little rain falls, doesn’t
seep far in the ground,
roots near the surface
will catch all the water.
Little water, they have
little need for water,
only once in a while.
Also small in size, so
they don’t need a lot
of water. .
Analyze world ecosystem map. P. 102
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Boreal Forest & tundra
are wide spread in high
latitudes
Tropical Rain Forests
occur in low latitudes
Tropical Rain forest is
most predominant in
South America.
South America, Africa,
Australia and
Antarctica do not have
tundra.
Coniferous/Boreal
forest is our ecosystem