Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

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Transcript Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture

Pesticide Formulations
Stephen J. Toth, Jr.
Department of Entomology
North Carolina State University
Wayne G. Buhler
Department of Horticultural Science
North Carolina State University
Photograph from U. S. Department of Agriculture
Pesticide Formulations
• A pesticide formulation is a mixture of active and inert
(inactive) ingredients
• Some formulations are
ready-to-use; others
must be further diluted
with water, a petroleumbased solvent, or air
before they are applied
Tim McCabe
Purpose of Formulations
• Increase pesticide effectiveness in the field
(availability to pests, persistence)
• Improve safety features
of pesticide (diminish
the hazards to user or
• Enhance the handling
qualities of pesticide
(equipment, storage)
Tim McCabe
Considerations for Choosing
a Pesticide Formulation
• Do you have the necessary equipment to apply
the formulation properly?
• Can the formulation be applied safely in the area
and under the conditions of application?
• Will the formulation reach the target and stay in
place long enough to control the pest?
• Will the formulation harm the surface on which
it is applied?
Types of Pesticide Formulations
• Liquid Formulations
Emulsifiable Concentrates
Liquid Flowables
• Fumigants
• Adjuvants
• Dry Formulations
Granules or Pellets
Wettable Powders
Soluble Powders
Dry Flowables
Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC or E)
• Contains a liquid active ingredient, solvent and agent to
allow formulation to mix with water to form an emulsion
North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC or E)
• Used: in agriculture, ornamentals, turf and forestry,
and for livestock, structural and public health pests
• Advantages: easy to handle, transport and store;
little agitation required; not abrasive; doesn’t clog
nozzles; and leaves little residue on treated surfaces
• Disadvantages: mixing and calibration required;
toxic to plants and humans (easily absorbed through
the skin); can deteriorate metal and rubber; and is
Solution (S)
• Contains an active ingredient dissolved in a liquid solvent
(water or petroleum-based); either a concentrate (must be
further diluted) or ready-to-use formulation
North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
Solution (S)
• Used: for structural pests, livestock and poultry pests,
space sprays, shade tree pests, and mosquito control
• Advantages: no agitation needed
• Disadvantages: a limited number of formulations of
this type available
Dana Downey
Liquid Flowable (F or L)
• Contains insoluble, finely-ground solid active ingredient
mixed with a liquid (and inert ingredient) to form a
North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
Liquid Flowable (F or L)
• Used: same pest control operations as emulsifiable
• Advantages: easy to handle and apply; seldom clogs
• Disadvantages: require
moderate agitation and
may leave a viable
residue on surfaces
Bill Tarpenning
Aerosol (A)
• Contains one or more active ingredients and solvent
(usually petroleum distillate); packaged in a ready-touse pressurized container, or applied in a smoke or
fog generator
• Used: space spraying, crack and crevice treatments
for structural and household pest control
• Advantages: convenient; the user can purchase small
quantities of pesticide; easily stored; and does not
lose activity
• Disadvantages: limited uses; difficult to confine to
target site or pest; and risk of inhalation injury
Dust (D)
• Ready-to-use dry formulation that contains a low
percentage of the active ingredient plus a dry, inert
carrier (talc, chalk, clay, ash, etc.); used dry
• Used: to treat seed, control indoor pests (crack and
crevice and spot treatments) and parasites on pets and
livestock, and used for pests in home gardens
• Advantages: usually ready-to-use, no mixing; requires
simple equipment; effective in hard-to-reach areas
• Disadvantages: drifts off-target; residues easily moved
off target by air and water (rain); doesn’t stick as well as
liquids; uneven distribution; irritates eyes, nose, throat
Bait (B)
• Contains a small amount of dry active ingredient mixed
with food or some other attractant; pests ingest pesticide
North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
Bait (B)
• Used: inside buildings for control of ants, roaches,
flies, rodents; outdoors for control of rodents, other
mammals, birds, slugs, snails and insects
• Advantages: ready-to-use with no mixing; little hazard
to applicator; even distribution not necessary; controls
mobile pests; can be removed when pests not present
• Disadvantages: can be attractive to children, pets and
wildlife; pests may prefer crop to bait; dead pests may
cause odor problem or secondary poisoning of wildlife
Granule (G) or Pellet (P)
• Ready-to-use, dry formulations prepared by applying liquid
active ingredient to coarse, absorptive material such as clay;
pellets are larger, more uniform in shape
• Used: granular formulations used for soil pests, larval
mosquitoes, aquatic pests, and for aerial application to avoid
drift; pellets used as pelleted seed, fumigants
• Advantages: particles settle quickly (low drift); little hazard
to applicator; simple application equipment (e.g., spreaders);
slow release of pesticide
• Disadvantages: do not stick to foliage or surfaces; may need
to incorporate in soil; may require moisture to activate
pesticide; non-target wildlife may use as feed
Wettable Powder (WP or W)
• Dry, finely-ground formulation with active ingredient
mixed with clay or talc; formulation mixed with water
to form a suspension for application
North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
Wettable Powder (WP or W)
• Used: widely used, commercial applications for most
pest problems
• Advantages: easy to store, transport and handle; less
likely than EC formulation to harm plants, animals
and surfaces; less skin and eye absorption than EC
• Disadvantages: inhalation hazard to mixers; requires
good agitation, will settle out of solution; abrasive to
pumps and nozzles; leaves visible residues on surfaces
Soluble Powder (SP)
• Similar to wettable powder, but dissolves readily and
forms a true solution; few pesticides available in this
• Advantages: has all of the advantages of the wettable
powders; non-abrasive to pumps and nozzles; constant
agitation not required
• Disadvantages: inhalation hazard during mixing
Microencapsulated Pesticide (M)
• Particles of pesticide active ingredient (liquid or dry)
surrounded in a plastic coating; formulated product
mixed with water and applied as spray; following
application the capsule slowly releases the pesticide
• Advantages: increased safety to applicator; easy to
mix, handle and apply; slow release of pesticide
• Disadvantages: constant agitation required; bees may
pick capsules and take back to their hive
Dry Flowable (DF)
• Active ingredient is prepared as dry, granular-sized
particles; granules mixed with water, where they break
into fine particles and form a suspension for application
North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
Dry Flowable (DF)
• Advantages: more easily measured and mixed than
wettable powders; less inhalation hazard to mixers
• Disadvantages: requires constant agitation to keep the
formulation in solution
Fumigant (F)
• Pesticides that form poisonous gases when applied;
formulated as liquids or solids; can be released under
pressure, high humidity or water vapor
• Used: agriculture (soil, greenhouses, bins); structural
pest control; regulatory pest control (ports, borders)
• Advantages: toxic to wide range of pests; can penetrate
very small areas; usually requires a single treatment
• Disadvantages: highly toxic to humans and non-target
organisms; requires use of specialized application
equipment and protective equipment (respirator); the
treatment area must be enclosed or covered
• Chemical (inert) added to a pesticide formulation
or tank mix to increase the effectiveness or safety
• Includes wetting agents, emulsifiers, spreaders,
stickers, foaming agents, thickeners, safeners,
compatibility agents, buffers, and anti-foaming
North Carolina Pesticide
Applicator Training Program
• Applying Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for
Private and Commercial Applicators. Unit 3:
Formulations. pp. 29-37.