sense广义上讲

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Transcript sense广义上讲

Chapter 1 The Environment
Used in a broad sense广义上讲,
the environment means
the global surroundings that affect our lives.
This chapter will enable you to:
• Understand the nature 性质and terminology术语 of the
environment.
• Understand the links between the natural and built
environment
• Understand the nature of climate and its controlling factors
• Understand the scientific aspects of global warming
• Appreciate认知 the issues associated with control of
greenhouse gases 温室气体and global warming
• Identify明确 the main factors因素 for human comfort within
the built environment
Three main topics
• 1.1 THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
建筑环境
• 1.2 CLIMATE
气候
• 1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT
环境舒适性
1.1 The Built Environment 建筑环境
• Natural environment自然环境
is the entire environment, without human
presence or interference.
include: climate, mountains, hills, rivers and
lakes, rocks, soil, trees and plants
• Built environment 建筑环境
is formed by the buildings and other structures
that humans construct in the natural
environment.
include: buildings, water and drainage ,
transport , power, communication systems.
Figure 1.1 Parts of the environment
McMullan
Connections between natural & built environment
环境之间的联系
• Early humans made use of natural shelters天然的遮蔽处,
such as caves,
• then built shelters using available materials like animal
hides兽皮, stones, straw秸秆, or wood.
• To provide shelter from the weather and animals attack
• Modern buildings involve so many features in design,
materials and construction that is easy to forget that the
fundamental aim is to provide an internal内 environment
that is different to the external 外environment.
• A built environment responds to the local natural environment,
•Climate is a major factor in determining the features of building
together with the availability of building materials and skills.
Some of these interactions are summarized in table 1.1
• Table 1.1 Examples of environmental connections
Natural environment feature Built environment features
Hot dry climates 干热气候
Light-coloured surfaces 浅色表面
Roof overhang to provide shade 屋顶外挑遮阳
Opening for breezes 通风
Courtyards to trap cooler air 庭院遮挡冷风
Warm humid climate
热湿气候
Lightweight materials 轻质材料
Buildings on sitlts for ventilation建筑架空用于通风
Cold climate 冷气候
High insulation 高度保温
Tightly-sealed construction 结构密封性好
Snowfalls 下雪地区
Strong roofs for load 屋顶强度高
Sloping roofs to discard snow 斜屋顶用于除雪
High winds 大风地区
Low sunken buildings 建筑下沉
Forests 森林地区
Timber as construction material 木材作建材
Loose stone or quarries 石头
Stone as construction material 石头做建材
Clay soil 粘土
Brick as construction material 砖作建材
Earthquake zone 地震地带
Lightweight flexible construction 轻型柔性结构
Reinforced masonry and concrete增加的砖石和混
Remember:
• Climate is a major factor in determining the
features of building together with the availability
of building materials and skills.
• A built environment responds to the local
natural environment!!
Interaction and issues
建筑与自然的相互作用和引起的问题
1 Consumption of non-replenishable 不可再生
resources such as fossil fuel 化石燃料
2 Consumption of resources without replacement, such
as hardwood forests硬木森林
3 Harmful changes to local habitat栖息地, such as
deforestation森林砍伐
4 Harmful changes to global habitat, such as climate
change气候变化.
1.2 Climate 气候
A local climate can be linked factors listed below:
1.2.1 Geographical latitude 地理纬度
1.2.2 Season of the year 季节
1.2.3 Altitude and topography 海拔高度和地形地貌
1.2.4 Effects of water 水
1.2.5 Atmosphere circulation 大气循环
1.2.6 Climate types 气候类型
1.2.7 Environment around buildings 建筑周围环境
1.2.8 Climate change 气候变化
1.2.1 Geographical latitude 地理纬度
• Intensity of solar radiation 太阳辐射 decreases as latitude
increases
• The closer the position to the poles, the smaller the angle of
incidence, and therefore the less intense the radiation.
1.2.2 Season of the year 季节
Figure 1.2 Motion of earth around the sun
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Tilt 倾斜
Northern hemisphere 北半球
Southern hemisphere
Midwinter ; Winter solstice 冬至
Midsummer ; Summer solstice 夏至
1.2.3 Altitude and topography
海拔高度和地形地貌
• Air temperature drops by 6.5℃ for each 1000 meters
increases in altitude.
• The topography also influence the local climate by affecting
the formation of wind, cloud and rain.
• AN example
• as humid air from an ocean sweeps up the slope of a
mountain range the air cools, forms clouds and causes rain
and snow to fall.
• As the wind blows down 吹下the leeward slopes 背风面的山坡
on the other side of the mountains the air usually warms and
clouds tend to disappear.
1.2.4 Effects of water
• Oceans and large lakes affect climates
• The mass of water in an ocean or lake absorbs heat and
so takes longer to warm and longer to cool than a land
mass.
• examples
•
Glasgow格拉斯哥and Moscow have similar latitudes,
but they have very different climates.
• Within the oceans there are large currents, such as the
Gulf Stream墨西哥暖流 and EI Nino厄尔尼诺 洋流 ,
which distribute this energy around the world and
interact with weather systems
• 据推测,0.5千米深、200千米宽的湾流传送的能量,相当
于1600亿千克的煤燃烧1小时所产生的热能。
• 尽管纬度很高,挪威的海洋性气候却是十分湿润,由于受
来自墨西哥湾的暖流影响,沿海终年不结冰。
1.2.5 Atmosphere circulation 大气循环
• The movements of large masses of air in the
atmosphere influence climate by producing winds that
distribute heat and moisture.
• Global belts of wind, such as the trade winds信风, circle
the earth and shift north and south as the seasons of the
year change.
• In the spring they move towards the poles and in the
autumn they shift towards the equator.
• These shifts of wind help to explain why some areas
have distinct rainy seasons and dry seasons.
1.2.6 Climate types 气候类型
Type of climate 气候类型 Typical characteristics 典型特征
cold 寒冷气候
Excessive heat loss for most of year全年失热量过多
Minimum temperature : below -15℃
Temperate 温和气候
Excessive heat loss for part of year
Inadequate heat loss for part of year
Temperature ranges: -30℃-30℃
Precipitation 降水 possible in all seasons
Hot/dry 热/干气候
Overheating for most of year
Dry air allows evaporation
Temperature ranges: -10℃- 45℃
High radiation
strong winds
Warm/humid暖/湿
Overheating for most of year
Humid air inhibits cooling
Temperature often above 20℃
Mean relative humidity around 80%
High rainfall in certain months
1.2.7 Environment around buildings
建筑微环境
• From the perspective of a building从建筑的角度来看, the
climate is the set of environmental conditions that surrounding
the building and link to a building. Microclimates 建筑微气候
• When choose site for building and towns
• The following features of the local natural environment are
important
• Availability of drinking water 饮用水的问题
• Drainage of ground 地面排水
• Safety form flooding 水灾时的安全问题
• Shelter form prevailing weather 恶劣天气下的躲避问题
• Orientation to sun, as appropriate 适当的日照
1.2.8 Climate Change 气候变化
• the earth has warmed by at least 0.5℃ during the last
century.
• the activities of humans are causing the current increase
in global temperature.
• What’s the effects of global warming?
• change the ecology生态 of many parts of the earth and
bring difficulties for people living there.
Possible effects of global warming include:
• Melting of polar ice causing rise in sea levels and
disappearance of land
• Increase in severity of storms and flooding
严重的暴风雨和洪涝灾害的增加
• Change in rainfall patterns, forming new deserts沙漠
• Changes in ocean currents, causing changes in local
climates
• Changes in patterns of snowfall and ice sheets
降雪模式和冰川的改变
Heavy rains cause flooding in Mexico
09-07-2010
Greenhouse effect 温室效应
That atmosphere surrounding the Earth also behaves as a large
“green house” around our world.
The principal greenhouse gases
主要的温室气体
• Carbon dioxide CO2
Chimneys, motor vehicle exhaust and forest fires
are major sources
• Methane CH4
main component of natural gas supplies
• Nitrogen oxides NOx
Motor vehicle emissions
• Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs氯氟烃
Manufactured for use in refrigerators, spray cans
喷雾罐, and for insulation保温.
1.3
Environmental Comfort 环境舒适性
• Environmental comfort can make our live and work more
better.
• depends on :
Temperature 温度
Quality of air 空气质量
Lighting environment 光环境 Acoustic environment 声环境
How to measure and control these factor??
discussed within the various chapters of this book.
Figure 1.3 Summary of comfort conditions
McMullan
Summary of chapter 1 The Environment
1 two concepts : Natural environment and built environment
2 parts of the environment and connection between them
a built environmental responds to the local natural environment
climate is a major factor in determining the features of building
3 climate:
latitude; season of year; altitude and topography; water;
atmospheric circulation
climate types: cold; temperate; hot/dry; warm/humid
environment around buildings _ microclimates
climate change: greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases
4 environmental comfort
temperature; air quality; lighting and acoustic environment
Exercises in class
1(
) is the main component of natural gas
supplies
A Carbon dioxide CO2
B Methane CH4
C Nitrogen oxides NOx
D Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs氯氟烃
2 (
) is manufactured for use in
refrigerators
A Carbon dioxide CO2
B Methane CH4
C Nitrogen oxides NOx
D Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs氯氟烃
3 The main components of motor vehicle
exhaust are ( )
A Carbon dioxide CO2
B Methane CH4
C Nitrogen oxides NOx
D Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs氯氟烃
4 The physical comfortable of humans
greatly depends on (
)
A Temperature
B Quality of air
C Lighting environment
D Acoustic environment
Homework
1 Read chapters 1 of the textbook
2 Finish the following questions.
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What’s the connections between environments
( ) can affect a local climate.
The main climate types are ( )
The principal greenhouse gases include ( )
The comfort of humans greatly depends on (
)
3 Write down the important words