Ecology ppt - Worth County Schools

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Transcript Ecology ppt - Worth County Schools

Ecology
Ecology:
Abiotic
Biotic:
Levels of Organization
Habitat
Niche
Feeding Relationships
Symbiotic Relationships
Trophic Levels
Carrying
Capacity
Competition
WHAT IS ECOLOGY?
Ecology- the scientific study of
interactions between organisms
and their environments, focusing
on energy transfer
Ecology is a science of relationships
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY ENVIRONMENT?
The environment is made
up of two factors:
•
Biotic factors- all living
organisms inhabiting the
Earth
• Abiotic factors- nonliving
parts of the environment
(i.e. temperature, soil,
light, moisture, air
currents)
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Organism
Organism – a single individual representing
a species
The lowest level of organization
POPULATION
 a group of organisms of
one species living in the
same place at the same
time that interbreed
Produce fertile offspring
Compete with each other
for resources (food,
mates, shelter, etc.)
Community -Populations of different
species interacting within an ecosystem.
Ecosystem - populations in a
community and the abiotic factors
with which they interact (ex.
marine, terrestrial)
Biome- regional or global community of
organisms characterized by the climate
conditions and plant communities that
thrive there
Biosphere – where all life exists on
Earth.
•The highest level of organization
Fundamental
Niche-
Limiting
factor-
Interspecific
competition-
Carrying
Capacity -
Intraspecific
competition-
Realized
Niche-
Habitat
Niche
Carrying Cap. Competition
Habitat vs. Niche
Niche - the role a species plays in
a community; its total way of life
Habitat- the place in which an
organism lives out its life
Niche: 2 Types
• Fundamental niche– includes the total
range of
environmental
conditions and roles
that a species could
theoretically fulfill
ExYou COULD
theoretically clean
the dishes, dust,
vacuum, wash
clothes, iron, fold
towels, sweep &
mop EVERY DAY.
Niche: 2 Types
• Realized niche– The roles that the
species actually
fulfills
These are the chores
you actually do. You
might have really
washed the dishes
and that was it.
Habitat vs. Niche
A niche is determined by the
tolerance limitations of an
organism, or a limiting factor.
Limiting factor- any biotic or
abiotic factor that restricts the
existence of organisms in a
specific environment.
Habitat vs. Niche
Examples of limiting factors •Amount of water
•Amount of food
•Temperature
•Amount of space
•Availability of mates
Carrying Capacity
the maximum population size that can
be supported by the available resources
There can only be as
many organisms as the
environmental
resources can support
Survivorship curves
• Type 1
TYPE I
– Most individuals survive
childhood and middle
age
– rapidly decline in old age
– Example: humans
02 June 2010
Populations.ppt
19
Survivorship curves
• TYPE II
– Roughly a constant
mortality rate throughout
individual’s life span
• Example: birds
02 June 2010
Populations.ppt
20
Survivorship curves
• TYPE III
– Most individuals will die
early in life and not
make it to adulthood
– Example: frogs, plants
02 June 2010
Populations.ppt
21
Competition
• Interspecific
competition
individuals of
different species
compete for the same
resource in an
ecosystem
• Intraspecific
competition
members of the same
species compete for
limited resources
Feeding Relationships
•
There are 3 main types of feeding
relationships
1. Producer - Consumer
2. Predator - Prey
3. Parasite - Host
Producers:
Consumers:
1.Herbivores
2. Carnivores
Omnivores:
Feeding Relationships
3. Scavengers 4. Decomposer
Feeding Relationships
Producer- all autotrophs
(plants), they trap energy
from the sun
• Bottom of the food chain
• They do photosynthesis
6CO2 +6H2O +sunlight  6O2 + C6H12O6
Feeding Relationships
Consumer- all heterotrophs: they
ingest food containing the sun’s
energy
Do cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + ATP + H2O
Herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores
Decomposers
Feeding Relationships
CONSUMERS
1. Primary consumers
• Eat plants
• Herbivores
• Secondary, tertiary
… consumers
• Prey on animals
• Predators
• Carnivores
Feeding Relationships
Consumer-Carnivores-eat meat
• Predators
– Hunt prey
animals for food.
Feeding Relationships
Consumer- Carnivores- eat meat
• Scavengers
– Feed on carrion,
dead animals
“Detritivores”
Feeding Relationships
ConsumerDecomposers
• Breakdown the
complex compounds
of dead and
decaying plants and
animals into simpler
molecules that can
be absorbed
Feeding Relationships
Consumer- Omnivores -eat both plants
and animals
Mutualism
Commensalism
Ex-
1
Ex-
2
1
Symbiotic Relationships
Parasitism
Ex-
2
1
2
Symbiotic Relationships
Symbiosis- two species living together
3 Types of
symbiosis:
1. Commensalism
2. Parasitism
3. Mutualism
Mutualism
• Both organisms benefit from the
relationship
• Organism One
Organism Two
Mutualism
• Both organisms benefit from the relationship
Otters and Kelp
The otters help the kelp
by eating the sea
urchins which
endanger it. The kelp
provides and anchor
for the otters while they
sleep.
The Chital and the Tree-pie
• The tree-pies help
the chital by stripping
the dead velvet from
the antlers. This
provides them with
nourishment
Therefore both
species are benefiting
from this symbiotic
behavior.
Cleaner Fish and the Moray Eel
• The cleaner fish eats
parasites and food
bits out of the inside
of this moray eel. It
gets a meal and is
protected from
predators by the
fierce eel.
Lichen
• Lichen is really two organisms: algae and fungus.
The fungus needs food but cannot make it. The
algae makes food but needs some way to keep moist.
The fungus forms a crust around the algae which
holds in moisture. Both organisms benefit.
Swollen Thorn Acacia Tree and Ants
• The tree provides a
nursery for the ants in
the thorns and makes
special food for the
ant babies.
• In return the ants sting
and attack any other
plants or insects that
try to invade the tree.
Commensalism
• One species benefits while the other is
unaffected
• Organism One
Organism Two
Commensalism
• One species benefits while the other is unaffected
The cattle egret and cows
The cattle help the egret who
look for grasshoppers and
beetles that are raised by the
cows. Now and then they sit on
the back of a cow, looking for
ticks and flies. This does not
effect the cattle in any way.
Barnacles and Whales
• Barnacles need a
place to anchor. They
must wait for food to
come their way. Some
barnacles hitch a ride
on unsuspecting
whales who deliver
them to a food source.
This does not effect
the whale in any way.
Oak Gall Wasps and Oak Trees
• The oak gall wasp
stings the oak tree.
• the tree then grows
a GALL which is a
nest for the wasp’s
babies.
• When the larva
hatch, they eat their
way out of the gall.
• Does not help or
hurt the oak tree
Parasitism
• One species benefits while the other is
harmed
• Organism One
Organism Two
Parasitism
• One species benefits while the other is harmed
Mistletoe is an aerial
parasite that has no roots
of its own and lives off
the tree that it attaches
itself to. Without that tree
it would die. It slowly
chokes out the life of the
host tree.
Bedbugs
•
Bedbugs are small,
nocturnal parasites that
come out of hiding at
night to feed on
unsuspecting
humans. They feed
exclusively on
blood! Their bites often
result in an allergic
reaction.
Tapeworms
• The definitive host of the
cucumber tapeworm is a dog or a
cat (occasionally a human). Fleas
and lice are the intermediate host.
the dog or cat becomes
contaminated when the eggs are
passed in the feces, and the flea or
louse ingests the eggs. The dog
or cat (or human) is infected
when they ingest a flea or
louse. Hence the importance of
controlling fleas on your pet!
Type of
Species
relationship
harmed
Commensalism
Parasitism
Mutualism
= 1 species
Species
benefits
Species
neutral
Trophic Levels
• Each link in a food chain is known
as a trophic level.
• Trophic levels represent a feeding
step in the transfer of energy
and matter in an ecosystem.
Trophic Levels
Biomass- the amount of organic matter
comprising a group of organisms in a
habitat.
• As you move up a food chain, both
available energy and biomass
decrease.
• Energy is transferred upwards but is
diminished with each transfer. Only
10% of energy is moved from one level
to the next
E
N
E
R
G
Y
Trophic Levels
Tertiary
consumers- top
carnivores
Secondary consumerssmall carnivores
Primary consumers- Herbivores
Producers- Autotrophs
Trophic Levels
Food chain- simple model that
shows how matter and energy
move through an ecosystem
Trophic Levels
Food web- shows all possible
feeding relationships in a
community at each trophic level
• Represents a network of
interconnected food chains
Food chain
(just 1 path of energy)
Food web
(all possible energy paths)
Toxins in food chainsWhile energy decreases as it moves up
the food chain, toxins increase in
potency.
•This is called biological magnification
Ex: DDT & Bald Eagles
Nutrient Cycles
Cycling maintains homeostasis
(balance) in the environment.
•3 cycles to investigate:
1. Water cycle
2. Carbon cycle
3. Nitrogen cycle
Water cycle•Evaporation, transpiration,
condensation, precipitation
Water cycle-
Carbon cycle•Photosynthesis and respiration
cycle carbon and oxygen through
the environment.
Carbon cycle-
Nitrogen cycleAtmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly
78%-80% of air.
Organisms can not use it in that form.
Lightning and bacteria convert nitrogen into
usable forms.
Nitrogen cycleOnly in certain bacteria and industrial
technologies can fix nitrogen.
Nitrogen fixation-convert atmospheric
nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+)
which can be used to make organic
compounds like amino acids.
N2
NH4+
Nitrogen cycleNitrogen-fixing
bacteria:
Some live in a
symbiotic
relationship with
plants of the legume
family (e.g.,
soybeans, clover,
peanuts).
Nitrogen cycle•Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live
free in the soil.
•Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are
essential to maintaining the fertility
of semi-aquatic environments like rice
paddies.
Lightning
Atmospheric
nitrogen
Nitrogen Cycle
Denitrification
by bacteria
Animals
Nitrogen
fixing bacteria
Decomposers
Ammonium
Nitrification
by bacteria
Plants
Nitrites
Nitrates