The War Ends?

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Transcript The War Ends?

The War Ends?
Russia Withdraws
• Dec 1917: Bolsheviks
rebel in Russia and take
over
 5.5 million Russian
soldiers wounded or
killed
• Russia signs a peace
with Germany
 Vladimir Lenin
 Treaty of BrestLitovsk
• Germans shift full
attention to France
Vladimir Lenin
• His early years
 exiled to Siberia in
1897
• Committed to class
struggle and
revolution
• Bolshevik Party
renamed Communist
Party in March 1918
The Central Powers Collapse
• Germans launch
2nd attack near
the Marne River.
• Allies counter with
the help of
140,000 U.S.
troops
(Doughboys)
Second Battle of Marne
July-August 1918
• Turning point of the
war
 defeated Germans
 Allies begin to
advance on the
Western Front
• German commanders
believed war was lost
Alvin York
• Sought exemption as a
conscientious objector
 opposes war on moral
grounds but …
• Fought because a just
cause
• Oct 8, 1918: killed 25
Germans and captured
132 prisoners with a rifle
and a revolver
American Gunners in the
Argonne Forrest
GERMAN EAGLE (to German Dove): "Here, carry on
for a bit, will you I'm feeling rather run down."
1918 Flu Pandemic:
Depletes All Armies
50,000,000 –
100,000,000 died
Germany Collapses and the
Aftermath
• Nov. 3, 1918: AustriaHungary surrenders
• German troops rebel
 to exhausted to fight
• Nov. 9 Socialist leaders
seize Berlin and Kaiser
gives up throne
• Nov. 11 at 11pm
armistice signed. World
War I ends
Final Toll of War
• Involved 30 nations
• 9 million soldiers died
• 15 million died due to
starvation and disease
• 20 million wounded
• 10 million refugees
• Estimated cost - $350
billion
9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American
Cemetary, France
116,516 Americans Died
Final Toll of War
10,000,000
9,000,000
8,000,000
7,000,000
6,000,000
5,000,000
4,000,000
3,000,000
2,000,000
1,000,000
0
Russia
Germany
Austria-Hungary
France
Great Britain
Italy
Turkey
US
The Peace Conference
• Russia and Central
Powers left out
• “Big Four”:
Clemenceau- France
George- Britain
Orlando- Italy
Wilson – U.S.
• Wilson gives up most
of 14 points to keep
League of Nations
The Big Four
Wilson’s 14 Points
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No secret treaties (1)
Freedom of the seas (2)
Tariffs among nations should be lowered (3)
Arms should be reduced (4)
Colonial policies should consider the interests
of colonial people (5)
• Points #6-13 deal with self-determination
 let the people decide on their government
• Point #14 wanted the creation of the League of
Nations
Treaty of Versailles
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The Great Hall of Palace of Versailles (France)
June 28th, 1919
9 New nations (Poland, Czech., Yugoslavia)
Germany returns Alsace-Lorraine to France
Germany’s army reduced to 100,000
Germany pay $33 billion in war reparations
Germany sign war guilt clause
Palace of Versailles
Weaknesses of the Treaty
• Humiliated Germany –
depression hits – rise
of Adolf Hitler
• Russia ignored
• Colonized people in
SE Asia ignored
- (Ho Chi MinhIndochina Communist
Party)
Consequences of the War
• Anti-immigrant/radical sentiments
increase (RED SCARE!!!)
• U.S. emerges as great industrial power
• Congress rejects the League of Nations
• Settlements at Versailles was a “peace
built on quicksand”
• Political instability in Europe would
lead to WWII