Copyright and plagarism
Copyright and plagarism
Copyright Issues and Plagiarism
Director of Libraries
The Dalton School
What is Copyright?
“Copyright is a statutory privilege extended to
creators of works that are fixed in a tangible
medium of expression”
Bruwelheide, Janis H. The Copyright Primer for Librarians and Educators,
2nd ed. Chicago, ALA, 1995.
Copyright protects creators’ and owners’ rights to
Automatic Copyright: Almost anything a person
creates is copyrighted, whether registered or not
Works must be in a tangible format
Copyrights can be assigned
Copyrights may be registered with the U.S.
Owners’ Exclusive Rights
Reproduce or copy
What Can Be Copyrighted?
Print Material: books, newspapers, sheet music,
Nonprint Material: videos, DVDs, CD-ROMs,
photographs, statues, paintings, etc.
Internet: web pages, e-mails, digitized graphics,
What Can’t be Copyrighted
Facts or Historical Events
How Long Does Copyright Last?
1. Published before 1923
2. Published between 1923 and 1963 with copyright
notice but no renewal
3. Published between 1923 and 1978 with no
4. Published between 1978 and March 1, 1989 with
no copyright notice and no registration
5. A work to which the author/owner has given up
Some Significant Laws
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) Brings
U.S. Copyright Law into compliance with the WIPO World Intellectual property Organization
Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act (CTEA)
1998 - Extends the duration of coopyright in U.S.
retroactively from life of author + 50 years to life of
author + 70 years -- and works for hire from 75 to 95
years or 120 years, whichever comes first
U.S. Copyright Office
Library of Congress
101 Independence Avenue, S.E.
Washington, D.C. 20559-6000
What Works are in the Public Domain?
Most federal documents
Works with expired copyrights
Works for which the creator has given up the rights
Works published in 1923 or before
Some works published between 1923 and 1963
CHART -WHEN WORKS PASS INTO PUBLIC DOMAIN
What is Fair Use?
When do you need permission:
Purpose and character of use - for profit or
Nature of the work
Quantity to be borrowed - how substantial
Marketability of the work - effect of use on
Guidelines for Fair Use
Copyright is a “gray” issue, not clear law
Although vague, all four factors must be
Conference on Fair Use established
guidelines - 1994
Exemptions are permitted under special
Put requests in writing
If not possible, keep notes of oral conversations
Include the following information in a permissions
What you want permission to use
What kind of permission you need; how, where, how
often, how long, etc.
Request early - there is no limit on response by owner
Obtain a licence:
e.g. Motion Picture Licensing Corp. <www.mplc.com>
Establish a Policy
Written guidelines that cover:
Intellectual freedom regarding copyright
Acceptable use policies
What is Plagiarism?
Borrowing or using from another source
May be accidental or intentional
Common and easy in the digital age
Some Preventions and Remedies
Communicate honesty - build trusting
relationships with students
Educate students and faculty about what
Communicate policy clearly
Take action against violations