Retrieval: Getting information out

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Transcript Retrieval: Getting information out

Retrieval: Getting information out
To remember an
event requires not
only encoding and
storing it but also
getting it out
To most people
memory is called
recall. Which is the
ability to retrieve
information not in our
conscious awareness.
Long after you cannot
recall most of the
people in your school
yearbook you are still
able to recognize their
pictures from a
photographic line up.
Recognition- is a
measure of memory in
which the person
needs only to identify
item previous learned
in the past
Relearning-is a measure that
assesses the amount of time saved
when learning material for a second
time
IF YOU LEARNED SOMETHING AND THEN FORGOT
IT, YOU PROBABLY WILL RELEARN IT MORE
QUICKLY THEN YOU ORIGINALLY LEARNED IT.
Retrieval clues
Anchor points you can use
to access the target
information when you want
to retrieve it later.
The more retrieval clues
you have, the better your
chances of finding a
route to the suspended
memory .
Memories are stored in a
web of associations.
Priming- The activation
often unconsciously, of
particular association in
memory.(invisible
memory) this happens
without our awareness.
Contexts effects
Déjà vu (French for “already seen”)sometimes being in a context similar to
one we’ve in before may trigger this
experience
Moods and Memories
Events in the past may have aroused a specific
emotion that can later can prime us to recall its
associated events.
An emotion is like a library into which we place
memory records.
What we learn in one state- be it joyful or sad,
drunk or sober- it are sometimes recalled when
we are again in that state
We associate good and bad events with their
emotions thus our memories are mood
congruent- the tendency to recall experiences that
are consistent with ones current good or bad mood.
forgetting
Three sins of forgetting
Absent mindednessinattention to details
produces encoding failure
Transience- storage
decay over time
Blocking- inaccessibility
of stored info
Three sins of distortion
Misattribution-confusing
the source of info
Suggestibility-the
lingering effect of
misinformation
Bias-belief color
recollection
One sin of intrusion
Persistence-unwanted
memories
interference
Proactive
Learning some items
interference-the
might interfere with
disruptive effect of
retrieving others,
prior learning
on the
especially
when the
specialized
technicians would
be most
likely to use computerized test
equipment?
recall of new
items
are similar. Ex if
specialized technicians would be most
information.
someone
likely to use computerized test
equipment?gives you a
phone number you
Retroactive
may recall it later but
interference-the
if two or more people
disruptive effect of
do the same thing it
new learning on the
can be difficult to
recall of old info
recall later.
Motivated forgetting
In the concept of
repression scientest
found out that our
memory system does
indeed self sensor
painful information.
We do this to protect
our self concept and
to minimize anxiety.
Repression- the
basic defense
mechanism that
banishes from
consciousness
anxiety- arousing
thoughts,
feelings, and
memories